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Size reduction equipments

Crusher Coarse (feed from mine to 150 mm)
Fine (above product to 6mm)

Intermediate (prod. might pass a

40mesh screen)
Fine (most prod. might pass a 200 mesh
6mm feed to (1-50m) product size
Product of definite size & shape of 2Machin
10mm length

(coarse &

(Intermediat Grinders
e & fine)
Hammer mill

Blake Jaw
Crushing rolls
(smooth &
toothed roll)

Hammer mills
Attrition mill
Tumbling mills
rod mill, ball
mill, tube mill

with internal
Fluid energy
Agitated mill

Knife cutters

Jaw crushers
Compress feed between stationary & movable jaw
Blake jaw crusher movable jaw is pivoted at top,
maximum movement at the bottom, no tendency
to choke, does not give uniform product
Dodge jaw crusher movable jaw is pivoted at
bottom, maximum movement at the top,
tendency to choke, gives uniform product
Blake jaw crusher
Fixed jaw called anvil jaw nearly vertical
Swinging jaw reciprocates in a horizontal plane

Jaw crushers
Makes an angle of 20-30 degree with
anvil jaw
Jaw may carry grooves
Large lumps are broken down between
upper part of the jaw and moves
downwards where it again gets crushed
Jaws open and close 250-400 times per

Gyratory crusher
Principle compression
Funnel shaped casing, open at the
A conical crushing head in the form
of a truncated cone gyrates inside
the casing
Crushing head mounted on a shaft
pivoted at top on a flexible bearing
Lower end of the shaft driven by an
eccentric so as to describe a circle

125 to 425 gyrations per minute

Smooth roll crusher

Secondary crusher feed12 to 75mm prod. 12
to 1mm
Two heavy smooth-faced metal rolls turning
on parallel horizontal axes are the working
elements of the smooth-roll crusher
Principle compression between the rolls
Rolls turns towards each other at the same
Typical rolls are 600mm in dia with 300 mm
face to 2000mm in dia with 914mm face
Roll speed range from 50 to 300 r/min

Limiting size for nipping

Consider a spherical particle of diameter D2 to be crushed
It is positioned between a pair of crushing rolls of
diameter D1
Let D3 be the minimum spacing between the rolls which is
also the maximum dimension of the crushed particles
AN be the angle between the two common tangents to the
particles and each of the rolls

Let FT and FN be the tangential and normal forces acting on

the particle respectively at a point of contact with the rolls
If the resultant force is directed downwards, then the
particle will be nipped and crushed
In other words vertical component of tangential force, F Tv
should be greater than vertical component of normal force

Where is the coefficient of friction given by tangential for

normal force
Under the limiting condition
The angle AN is called the angle of Nip

For all practical purposes AN is taken as 32

Toothed roll crusher

Principle - compression, impact and attrition

Not limited by problem of nip, can handle large feed size
Disintegrators two corrugated rolls turning at diff. speeds

Grinders hammer mill

Grinding means subdividing the solids to a finer
product than crushing
Principle impact and attrition
Swing hammers are pinned to a rotor disk
Hammers may be straight bars of metal with plain
or enlarged ends
Product fall through a grate or screen which forms
the lower portion of the casing
Several rotor disks each carrying 4 to 8 swing
hammers are often mounted on a single shaft
The rotor disk diameter ranges from 150mm to
250 mm

Intermediate hammer mill yield a product

25 mm to 20 mesh size
Fine hammer mill product size less than
200 mesh, limited to soft materials
An impactor is a heavy duty hammer mill
with no screen or grate
Particles are broken by impact alone
Impactor is a primary size reduction


Tumbling mills
A cylindrical shell slowly rotating on a horizontal
axis and charged with a grinding medium to
about half its volume forms a revolving mill
The shell is made of steel and lined with
abrasion resistant materials such as
manganese steel
Grinding medium is usually made of metal
Ball, tube and rod mill are the various type of
revolving mills
Ball mill length approx. Equals diameter,
grinding medium usually steel balls

Conical Ball Mill

The component of gravitational force opposing

the centrifugal force is mg cos
When these forces balances each other ball falls

peripheral speed is related to the speed of
rotation N m/sec by
At critical speed N = Ncand = 0

Tumbling mills run at 65 to 80 per cent of critical


Disk Attrition Mill

Particles of soft solids are rubbed between the flat faces

of rotating circular disks
Axis of the disk is usually horizontal, sometimes vertical
In a single runner mill, one disk is stationary and one
In a double runner mill, both disk are driven at high
speeds in opposite direction
Feed enters through an opening in the hub of one of the
Passes outward through the narrow gap between the disks
and discharges from the periphery into a stationary
Metal/buhrstone disk are used
Air is drawn through the mill to prevent choking
Disks are colled
Disk of double runner mill turn faster and produces fine
products compared to single runner mill

Ultrafine grinders
Micro Atomizer / Classifying Hammer mill
Principle impact and attrition
Set of swing hammers is held between two rotor disks
Rotor shaft also carries two fans, which draw air
through the mill and discharges into duct leading to
collectors for the product
Short radial vanes on the rotor disk separate oversize
Acceptable particles are carried away by air stream
while coarse particles are left in the grinding zone
Product size 1-20m

Fluid Energy Mills

Particles are suspended in a high velocity gas stream
Jets are placed which oppose one another
Reduction occurs when particle rub against the walls
of the confining chamber and due to inter particle
Internal classification keeps the larger particle in the
mill until they are reduced to desired size
Suspending gas is usually air / superheated steam
admitted at a pressure of 7 atm through energizing
Feed enters the bottom of the loop through a venturi
Classification of the ground particles takes place at
the upper bend of the loop

Oval loop of pipe 25

200 mm in dia and 1.2
to 2.4 m high
At the top bend coarse
particles are thrown
outward against the wall
while fines keep closer
to the inner wall
A discharge opening in
the inner wall at this
point leads to a cyclone
seperator and bag
collector for the product
Can accept particles as
large as 12 mm, but
effective with particles
no larger than 100 mesh

Agitated Mills
Vertical vessel 4-1200 l in capacity filled with
liquid media
Grinding medium such as ball, pellet or sand
grains are suspended in the media
In some designs the charge is agitated with a
multiarmed impeller
Or a reciprocating central column vibrates the
vessel at 20 Hz
Concentrated feed slurry admitted at top and
product is withdrawn through a screen at the
Product size 1m or less

Colloid mills
Intense fluid shear in a high velocity stream is used
to disperse particles or liquid droplets to form a
stable suspension or emulsion
Often there is little actual size reduction in the mill
The principal action is disruption of lightly bonded
clusters or aglomerates
Syrups, ointments, paints and greases are typical
products processed in this way
In most colloid mills feed liquid is pumped between
closely spaced surfaces one of which is moving
relative to the other at speed of 50m/s or more
Capacity is low

Cutting Machines Knife Cutters

A rotary Knife cutter consists of a horizontal rotor
turning at 200 to 900 rpm in a cylindrical
2 12 flying knives on the rotor
Flying knives pass over 1 to 7 stationary bed
Application - recycling paper and plastic
Size reduction in rubber and plastics

Equipment operation
Feed should be of suitable size and enters at a
uniform rate
The product should be removed as soon as
possible after the particles are of desired size
Unbreakable material is kept out of the machine
In the reduction of low melting or heat sensitive
products, the heat generated in the mill is to be

Open circuit and Closed Circuit operation

Open circuit 1 pass through the mill, oversize
particles are not returned to the mill
Energy is wasted in regrinding particles that are
fine enough
In closed circuit the mill is connected to a
separator, where the oversize and undersize are
separated, and oversize sent back to the mill
The separation device can be inside the mill as in
some ultrafine grinders
For coarse particle the separation device is a
For fine particle it can be some form of classifiers

Mill Discharge
Choke feeding crushed particles stay
at the grinding zone and are regrinded
Free feeding crushed particles are
removed fast

Energy consumption
Most inefficient of all unit operations
Creating fine particles requires more
A ballmill consumes more energy than a