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EDU 3023:

Child Development
PN NORHAYATI BT HASHIM

NorhayatiHashim JIP2014

Objectives
i.

ii.
iii.
iv.
v.

Identify the concept of growth & its


characteristics
Identify the concept of development & its
characteristics
Describe the differences between growth
& development
Explain the basic principles of child
development
Define genetic & environment & how it
influences a childs development
NorhayatiHashim JIP2014

o Leah, a 5-year old, is certain that rolling out a


ball of clay into a snake creates more clay
o A 9-year-old child in Geneva, Switzerland, firmly
insists that it is impossible to be Swiss &
Genevan at the same time: Im already Swiss. I
cant be also be Genevan.
o Jamal, a very bright elementary school student,
cannot answer the question How would life be
different if people did not sleep? because he
insists, People HAVE TO SLEEP
o A 2-year-old brings his own mother to comfort a
friend who is crying , even though the friends
mother is available, too
NorhayatiHashim JIP2014

What explains these interesting


events?

NorhayatiHashim JIP2014

Changes occur during human


development. Most people use
growth & development in the same
context. In reality, growth &
development are different in
meaning but are related to each
other
NorhayatiHashim JIP2014

Growth
Woolfolk & Margeretts(2007), states
the growth is the change in size &
maturity

NorhayatiHashim JIP2014

Characteristics of Growth

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Development
Santrock (2008) defines development as
changes in the biological pattern, the
cognitive & social emotion of an individual
from birth to the end of life

NorhayatiHashim JIP2014

Characteristics of Development
Qualitative- seen through the emergence
of new characteristics
Happens in the physical, cognitive, social,
emotional & moral aspects
Changes stable, gradually &
systematically
Changes take place continuously through
different stages of maturation & learning
Influenced by genetic & environment
NorhayatiHashim JIP2014

Differences between Growth & Development


Fill in the following table.
Growth

Development

Physical
Emotions
Social

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Contoh Pengalaman Belajar yang Optimum : Bermain

How can a knowledge about


human development be used to help a
teacher in his teaching process?

Lets put on your thinking cap


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What is the source of


development?

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W3 FACTORS INFLUENCING CHILD


DEVELOPMENT

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FACTORS INFLUENCING CHILD DEVELOPMENT

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Bronfenbrenner Ecology Theory


(child development is the effect of the environment how the
child responds & reacts to the environment)

GROUP DISCUSSION
In a group of 5, explain the 5 different
system & its implication to human beings
development

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INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES
Each

individual is different from the biological & genetical


aspect ~ Dobzshansk
Development occurs at different rate according
to maturity & learning experiences

WHY ?

Maturity means the characteristic development


that exist in an individual inherited from their
genes (Hurlock, 1978) eg. ability to crawl, walk,
run
Learning involves practice & effort
A child learns to use their potentials through
learning (Hurlock,1978)
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Aspects of individual differences


i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
v.

Cognitive
Physical
Social
Emotion
Intelligence

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Multiple Intelligence(Howard Gardner)


a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
f)
g)
h)

Linguistic
Music
Spatial
Logic-Mathematics
Kinesthetic
Interpersonal
Intrapersonal
Naturalistic

* Surf the internet and download articles/notes on multiple


intelligences by Howard Gardner to be compiled in your
portfolio.
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Emotional Intelligence (Daniel Goleman)


ability to understand & interpret his own feelings
ability to manage his emotions in a proper
manner
Influenced by ones background
( upbringing,love, discipline/freedom, SES,
peer groups,media)

Potential is an individuals talent/hidden


capability & ability

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STAGES IN CHILD DEVELOPMENT


Stages in child development is an outcome of the biological
process , cognitive & socio-emotion (Santrock,2008)
Infancy
(0-2 yrs)

Rapid growth. Includes development of language ,


physical ability & capability to develop emotional relationship

Early childhood Play using their imagination. Rapid language development,


(3-8 yrs)
begins to use smaller muscles, ability to socialize
Childhood
(9-11 yrs)

Begins to learn about task & activities for future use, starts
having relationship with peer group, understands rules &
regulations

Early
Adolescence
(12-15 yrs)

Sensitive of their appearance & physical changes,


able to think logically

Adolescence
(15-20 yrs)

Close relationship with peer groups ,


learning to be independent
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THEORIES IN CHILD DEVELOPMENT

Child Development by Arnold Gessell


Theory of Cognitive Development by
Jean Piaget
Theory of development by Robert
Havinghurst

Activity: In a smaller group, discuss


and do mind map of the above
theories.
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Critical thinking
Which is more important in
development, the nature of an
individual (heredity, genes,
biological processes, maturation,
etc) or the nurture of
environmental contexts
( education, parenting, culture,
social policies , etc.)?
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