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KBP Standards

FM Broadcasting
Paul Buenvenida
Jerome Cansado
Ian Hatol
Sean Natividad

1. Introduction
Cause:
Importance of FM broadcasting in the Philippines
increased

Derived from:
CCIR recommendations
Engineering data
Rules and regulations of Federal Communications
Commission
Data supplied by manufacturers of radio equipment and
licensees of FM broadcast stations

To be improvised to be effective and compatible


with technical progress

2. Definition of Terms
2.1 FM broadcast band
Portion of the radio frequency spectrum from 88 MHz to 108 MHz.
the band is divided into 100 channels.

2.2 FM broadcast channel


A band of frequencies 200 kHz wide and is designated by its center
frequency. Channels for FM broadcast stations begin at 88.1 MHz and
continue in successive steps of 200 kHz to and including 107.9 MHz.

2.3 FM broadcast station


A station employing frequency modulation in the FM broadcast band
and intended to be received by the general public.

2.4 Frequency Modulation


The instantaneous frequency varies in proportion to the
instantaneous amplitude of the modulating signal, and the
instantaneous radio frequency is independent of the frequency of
the modulation signal.

FM Broadcast Station

2. Definition of Terms
2.5 Center frequency
The carrier frequency allocated by the Authority.

2.6 Frequency Swing


The instantaneous departure of the frequency of the emitted
wave from the center frequency resulting from modulation.

2.7 Antenna height above average terrain (HAAT) means


The height of the radiation center of the antenna above the
terrain 3 km to 16 km from the antenna.

2.8 Antenna field gain


.The ratio of the effective free space field intensity produced at
1.6 km in the horizontal plane expressed in millivolts per meter
for 1 kW antenna input power, to 137.6 millivolts per meter.

Antenna HAAT

2. Definition of Terms
2.9 Antenna power gain
Square of the ratio of the rms free space field strength
produced at 1.6 km in the horizontal plane, in
millivolts per meter for 1 kW antenna power, to 137.6
millivolts per meter. This ratio should be expressed in
decibels (dB).

2.10 Effective radiated power (ERP)


Product of the transmitter power multiplied by
a. Antenna power gain
b. Antenna field gain squared

2.11 Field Intensity


Field intensity as used in these standards shall
mean the electric field in the horizontal direction.

2. Definition of Terms
2.12 Free space field intensity
Field intensity that would exist at a point, in the absence of
reflective waves.

2.13 Service area


Service resulting from an assigned ERP and antenna HAAT.

2.14 Radio-frequency (R.F.) Protection Ratio


Value of the radio-frequency wanted-to-interfering signal
ration that enables the radio-frequency protection ratio to be
obtained at the output of a receiver.

2.15 Percentage modulation


Ratio of the actual frequency swing to the frequency swing
defined as 100 percent modulation ( 75 kHz), expressed in
percentage.

2. Definition of Terms
2.16 Multiplexing
Two or more independent sources of information combined for
carriage over a single medium (carrier frequency) and separated at
the receiving ends.

2.17 FM Stereophonic Broadcast


Transmission of a stereophonic program by a single FM broadcast
station utilizing the main channel and a stereophonic sub-channel.

2.18 Channel
A transmission path.

2.19 Composite Baseband Signal


Signal which is the sum of all signals which frequency-modulates the
main carrier.
Signal components: main channel signal, modulated stereophonic
subcarrier, pilot subcarrier and SCA subcarrier(s).

2. Definition of Terms
2.20 FM Baseband
Frequency band from 0 Hz to a specified upper
frequency which contains the composite baseband
signal.

2.21 Main Channel


Band of frequencies from 50 Hz (or less) to 15 kHz on
the FM baseband which contains the main channel
signal

2.22 Main Channel Signal


Combination of the monophonic or left and right audio
signals which frequency-modulates the main carrier.

2. Definition of Terms
2.23 Stereophonic Sound
Audio information carried by plurality of channels arranged to afford
the listener a sense of the spatial distribution of sound sources.

2.24 Stereophonic Sound Subcarrier


Subcarrier within the FM broadcast baseband used for stereophonic
sound reception of the main broadcast program service.

2.25 Stereophonic Sound Subchannel


The band of frequencies from 23 kHz to 99 kHz containing sound
subcarriers and their associated sidebands.

2.26 Subchannel
Transmission path specified by a subchannel signal occupying a
specified band of frequencies.

2. Definition of Terms
2.28 Pilot sub-carrier
Serves as a control signal for use in the reception of FM
stereophonic broadcast.

2.29 Left (or Right) Signal


Electrical output of a mic or combination of mics placed to
convey intensity, time, and location of the source of sound.

2.30 Left (or Right) stereophonic channel


Left (or Right) signal as electrically reproduced in the reception of
an FM stereophonic broadcast.

2.31 Stereophonic Separation


Ratio of electrical signal caused in the right (or left) stereophonic
channel and left (or right) stereophonic channel by the
transmission of only a right (or left) channel.

2. FM Baseband

2. Definition of Terms
2.32 Frequency Deviation
Peak difference between the instantaneous frequency of the
modulated wave and the carrier frequency.

2.33 Injection Ratio


Ratio of the frequency swing of the carrier by a subchannel
signal to the frequency swing defined as 100 % modulation.
The total injection is the arithmetic sum of each subchannel.

2.34 Cross-talk
Undesired signal occuring in one channel caused by and
electrical signal in another channel.

2.35 Linear Crosstalk (System Crosstalk)


Created by phase or gain inequalities in another channel(s).

2. Definition of Terms
2.36 Nonlinear Crosstalk (Transmitter Crosstalk)
Created by harmonic distortion or intermodulation of
electrical signal(s) in another channel(s).

2.37 SCA
Subsidiary Communications Authorization.

2.38 Index of cooperation


As applied to facsimile broadcasting, is the product of the
number of lines per inch, the available length in inches, and
the reciprocal of the line-use ratio.

2.39 Line-use ratio


As applied to facsimile broadcasting, is the ratio of the
available line to the total length of scanning line.

Radiofax

2. Definition of Terms
2.40 Available Line
Portion of the total length of scanning line that
can be used specifically for picture signals.

2.41 Rectilinear scanning


Process of scanning an area in a
predetermined sequence of narrow straight
parallel strips.

2.42 Optical density


The logarithm (to the base 10) of the ratio of
incident to transmitted or reflected light.

2. Definition of Terms
2.43 Experimental Period

Period between 12 midnight to 5:00 a.m. local standard time


(1600-2100 GMT).
May be used for experimental purposes in testing and maintaining
apparatus by the licensee of any FM broadcast station on its
assigned frequency and not in excess of its authorized power,
provided no interference is caused to other stations maintaining a
regular operation schedule within such period.

2.44 Operating Power


Product of the plate voltage (Ep) and the plate current (Ip) of the
last radio stage and efficiency factor, F, expressed: .
Indirect method of determining operating power of each FM station
for the purpose of specifying the operating power range of FM
transmitters.
Efficiency factor (F) shall be established by the transmitter
manufacturer.

2. Definition of Terms
2.45 Last radio stage
Oscillator or radio-frequency- power
amplifier stage which supplies power to the
antenna.

2.46 Qualified technician


As applied to FM broadcasting means a
person who is a holder of any class of Radio
Telephone Operators License of its
equivalent except those mentioned in
Section 7.4 as issued by the existing
regulatory body.

3. Allocation of Frequencies for FM Broadcast


Stations
Frequency
Frequency
Channel No.
Channel No.
201
202
203
204
205
206
207
208
209
210
211
212
213
214
215
216
217
218
219
220
221
222
223
224
225

(MHZ)
88.1
88.3
88.5
88.7
88.9
89.1
89.3
89.5
89.7
89.9
90.1
90.3
90.5
90.7
90.9
91.1
91.3
91.5
91.7
91.9
92.1
92.3
92.5
92.7
92.9

226
227
228
229
230
231
232
233
234
235
236
237
238
239
240
241
242
243
244
245
246
247
248
249
250

(MHZ)
93.1
93.3
93.5
93.7
93.9
94.1
94.3
94.5
94.7
94.9
95.1
95.3
95.5
95.7
95.9
96.1
96.3
96.5
96.7
96.9
97.1
97.3
97.5
97.7
97.9

3. Allocation of Frequencies for FM Broadcast


Stations
Frequency
Frequency
Channel No.
Channel No.
251
252
253
254
255
256
257
258
259
260
261
262
263
264
265
266
267
268
269
270
271
272
273
274
275

(MHZ)
98.1
98.3
98.5
98.7
98.9
99.1
99.3
99.5
99.7
99.9
100.1
100.3
100.5
100.7
100.9
101.1
101.3
101.5
101.7
101.9
102.1
102.3
102.5
102.7
102.9

276
277
278
279
280
281
282
283
284
285
286
287
288
289
290
291
292
293
294
295
296
297
298
299
300

(MHZ)
103.1
103.3
103.5
103.7
103.9
104.1
104.3
104.5
104.7
104.9
105.1
105.3
105.5
105.7
105.9
106.1
106.3
106.5
106.7
106.9
107.1
107.3
107.5
107.7
107.9

4. Classes of FM Broadcast
Stations
4.1 Class-A Stations
Transmitter power in between 10 kW to
25 kW
Maximum of 125 kW ERP
Maximum of 2,000 ft. above ave. terrain
Only allowed in Metro Manila and
Metro Cebu

Examples of Class-A
Stations

4. Classes of FM Broadcast
Stations
4.2 Class-B Stations
Transmitter power in between 1 kW to
10 kW
Maximum of 30 kW ERP
Maximum of 500 ft. above ave. terrain

Example of Class-B Station

4. Classes of FM Broadcast
Stations
4.3 Class-C Stations
Non-commercial, community station
Maximum of 1 kW ERP

4. Classes of FM Broadcast
Stations
4.4 Class-D Stations
Educational stations
Maximum of 10 W transmitter power

4.5 All classes of FM stations shall be


protected to the 1 mV/m contour or
60 dBu contour.

4. Classes of FM Broadcast
Stations
4.6 Table of Assignments
The frequency assignments for the cities
of Manila, Laoag, Legaspi, Cebu, Davao,
and Zamboanga.
Chann
el
202
206
210
214
218
222
226
230
234
238
242
246

Frequency
(MHz)
88.3
89.1
89.9
90.7
91.5
92.3
93.1
93.9
94.7
95.5
96.3
97.1

250

97.9

Chann
el
254
258
262
266
270
274
278
282
286
290
294
298

Frequency
(MHz)
98.7
99.5
100.3
101.1
101.9
102.7
103.5
104.3
105.1
105.9
106.7
107.5

4. Classes of FM Broadcast
Stations
4.7 Radio Frequency Protection
Ratios
4.7.1 The ff. RF protection ratios provide
the minimum physical separation
betweenRADIO-FREQUENCY
stationsPROTECTION
and protection
of
RATIOS (dB)
stations(based
from
interference
on the horizontal component of radiation)
Frequency Spacing (KHz)

R.F. Signal Ratio

60dBu : 15dBu

200

60dBu : 53dBu

400

60dBu : 80dBu

4. Classes of FM Broadcast
Stations
4.7.2 Intermediate frequency amplifiers of most
FM broadcast receivers are designed to operate
on 10.7 MHz. For this reason the assignment of
two stations in the same area, one with a
frequency 10.6 or 10.8 MHz removed from that
of the other, should be avoided if possible.
4.7.3 FM Broadcast Stations shall not be
authorized to operate in the same city or in
nearby cities with a frequency separation of less
than 800 kHz.

4. Classes of FM Broadcast
Stations
4.7.4 The nature and extent of the
protection from interference accorded the
FM broadcast stations is limited solely to
that which results from the application of
the radio frequency protection ratio.
4.7.5 A commercial broadcast entity may
establish only one primary FM radio
station within the geographical
boundaries of any province.