Conservation Laws for Viscous Fluid Flows
P M V Subbarao
Professor
Mechanical Engineering Department
I I T Delhi
A Mathematical Frame Work to
Create Fluid Flow Devices
Viscous Fluid Flow is A Control Volume Flow
n
m
Dm
x , t
dV x , t v .nds x , t v .n ds 0
Dt V t t
i 1 sexit ,i t
j 1 sinlet , j t
Steady Viscous Flow
n
m
Dm
x , t
dV x , t v .n ds x , t v .n ds 0
Dt V t t
i 1 sexit ,i t
j 1 sinlet , j t
If the density does not undergo a time change (steady flow), the
above equation is reduced to:
m
Dm n
x v .nds x v .n ds 0
Dt i 1 sexit ,i t
j 1 sinlet , j t
Dm
x v .nds 0
Dt s t
Continuity Equation in Cartesian Coordinates
D
dV
. v dV 0
Dt V t
t
V t
The continuity equation for unsteady and compressible
flow is written as:
. v 0
t
This Equation is a coordinate invariant equation.
Its index notation in the Cartesian coordinate system given is:
vi
0
t
xi
v1 v2 v3
0
t
x1
x2
x3
Continuity Equation in Cylindrical Polar
Coordinates
Many flows which involve rotation or radial motion are
best described in Cylindrical Polar Coordinates.
In this system coordinates for a point P are r, and z.
The velocity components in these
directions respectively are vr ,v and vz.
Transformation between the Cartesian and
the polar systems is provided by the
relations,
1 y
2
2
tan
r x y
x
The gradient operator is given by,
r
z
r r
z
As a consequence the conservation of mass equation becomes,
1 rvr 1 v v z
0
t r r
r
z
Continuity Equation in Cylindrical Polar
Coordinates
Spherical polar coordinates are
a system of curvilinear coordinates
that are natural for describing atmospheric flows.
Define to be the azimuthal angle in the xy plane from the xaxis
with 0 < 2 .
to be the zenith angle and colatitude, with 0 <
r to be distance (radius) from a point to the origin.

The spherical coordinates (r,,) are related to
the Cartesian coordinates (x,y,z) by
r x y z
2
cos 1
y
tan
x
1
or
x r cos sin
y r sin sin
z cos
The gradient is
1 1
r
r r sin r
As a consequence the conservation of mass equation becomes,
1 r 2 vr
1 v sin
1 v
2
0
t r
r
r sin
r sin
Balance of Linear Momentum
The momentum equation in integral form applied to a control
volume determines the integral flow quantities such as blade lift,
drag forces, average pressure.
The motion of a material volume is described by Newtons
second law of motion which states that mass times acceleration
is the sum of all external forces acting on the system.
These forces are identified as electrodynamic, electrostatic, and
magnetic forces, viscous forces and the gravitational forces:
For a control mass
Dv x , t
m
FED FES Fm FMS FG
Dt
This equation is valid for a closed system with a system
boundary that may undergo deformation, rotation, expansion or
compression.
Balance of Momentum for Flow
In a flow, there is no closed system with a defined system
boundary.
The mass is continuously flowing from one point to
another point.
Thus, in general, we deal with mass flow rather than mass.
Consequently, the previous equation must be modified in
such a way that it is applicable to a predefined control
volume with mass flow passing through it.
This requires applying the Reynolds transport theorem to a
control volume.
The Preparation
The momentum balance for a CM needs to be modified,
before proceeding with the Reynolds transport theorem.
As a first step, add a zeroterm to CM Equation.
Dm
0
Dt
Dm
v
0
Dt
Dv x , t Dm
m
v x, t
FED FES Fm FS FG
Dt
Dt
D mv x , t
FED FES Fm FS FG
Dt
Applying the Reynolds transport theorem to the lefthand side of
Equation
D mv x , t
v
. v v dV
Dt
t
V t
D mv x , t
v
dV . v v dV
Dt
t
V t
V t
Replace the second volume integral by a surface integral using the
Gauss conversion theorem
D mv x , t
v
dV n. v v dS
Dt
t
V t
St
dV n. v v dS FED FES Fm FS FG
t
V t
St
Viscous Fluid Flows using a selected combination of
Forces
Systems only due to Body Forces.
Systems due to only normal surface Forces.
Systems due to both normal and tangential surface Forces.
Thermodynamic Effects (Buoyancy forces/surface)..
PhysicoChemical/concentration based forces
(Environmental /Bio Fluid Mechanics)