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AUTOMATIC BUS LOCATION

ANNOUNCEMENT SYSTEM USING


MICROCONTROLLER

GROUP MEMBERS
Shapoor 12419
Mohammadullah 12418
Mohammad Qais 12424

Wireless communicationcan be defined as transfer of information


between two or more points without using wires or cables. There
are different wireless technologies such as RFID, IR, GPS,
Bluetooth, and WI-FI, etc. In olden days location announcement
was done with the help of speakers, but now it is developed by
using IVRS in railways stations. Nowadays bus location can be
found with the help of Geo Positioning satellites.

This bus location announcement system is very helpful for people


who are illiterates and new to cities. This system can be applied
in different areas like transport companies, public trains, private
travels, government travel agencies, service organizations, etc.

GPS Involvement in Finding Bus Location


Global positioning system is a satellite-based navigation system
used to locate positions anywhere on earth. This kind of
technology can be used in various areas like military, commercial
usage and civil services all over the world. GPS can be used for
these purposes: trilateration, perfect timing, positioning of
satellites and error connection.

To locate the distance between two places and to know the far
away distance from another location, GPS is used for exact
location such as (latitude, longitude and height) on the earth
within the range of 20m to 1mm.

Most of the citizens prefer buses for a long-distance journey to avoid


accidents. When a bus reaches a station, its a big problem for many
passengers to know the destination. To overcome this problem, a bus
location announcement system is the best option as it informs us about
the bus location by using GPS technology. Such a system which uses GPS
technology is being practically explained in the subsequent paragraphs.

GPS receiver concept is based on the position and timing signals send by
the satellites, and the information can be transmitted in such a way that a
message is transmitted at certain time and position of the satellite during
message transmission.

The GPS system consists of three segments: space segment, control


segment and user segment. Space and control segments are operated,
developed and maintained by U.S air force; user segment includes both
military and civilian users and their GPS equipment.

Space Segment:It comprises 24 satellites from which 21 are navigational


space vehicles and 3 are active spares orbiting at an altitude of 11000 nautical
miles. These satellites are stable and predictable due to their high altitude. This
system consists of six orbital planes that are equally placed at 60 degrees and
inclined at about 55 degrees on equatorial plane.

Control Segment:This segment comprises a master control station, an


alternate motor-control station, four ground antennas and six monitor stations.
These monitor stations are placed all over the world, to measure the signal from
space vehicles which are incorporated into an orbital model of each satellite.
Dedicated antennas are used for broadcasting the signals to satellites.

User Segment:This system consists of receivers which can be handheld or


installed on aircraft, ship, submarines, cars and trucks. Receivers can decode,
detect and process the signals to satellites. These signals can be changed into
velocity, position and time. This segment can be used in different applications
such as military, shipping, surveying, satellite positioning and tracking.

GPS based Bus Arrival Announcement System for Buses and


Trains

The project is designed to locate a bus and announce the location


with the help of GPS technology, by using which the signals sent
by the satellites to a GPS receiver are interfaced with a PC for
locating the exact location of the bus.

GPS receivers are used to provide three-dimensional locations


such as latitude, longitude, and altitude with precise time. These
receivers provide reliable positioning, navigational and timing
services to worldwide users in any climatic conditions whether
day or night anywhere in the world and around the earth.

Block Diagram Description


The block diagram consists of the following seven sections:
8051 Microcontroller
This Microcontroller is the most important segment of this project as it controls all the operations
of the circuit such as reading data from the GPS modem which is connected serially with a
Personal Computer interfacing .

LCD
Most of the projects make use of displays for displaying information. There are various displays
used in those projects such as seven-segment displays and 5*7 displays. Selection of display
depends on the following factors like power consumption, ambient lighting conditions and cost
of displays.

MAX 232
This project utilizes MAX 232 for interfacing the system with a GPS module and computer. The
locations generated by the GPS module are sent to the computer serially with the help of MAX
232. The MAX 232 converts RS 232 signals to TTL voltage levels and thus makes use of +5v
power source, which is same as the source voltage from the 8051 microcontroller.

Power Supply
This block contains step-down transformer, a bridge rectifier, a filter capacitor and
a voltage regulator. Single-phase AC power supply from the mains is step down to
a lower voltage which is again rectified to DC using bridge rectifier. This rectified
DC is filtered and regulated to a circuit operating range with a capacitor and
regulator IC, respectively.

GPS Interface
The GPS module operates at 9600 or 4800 baud rates. It continuously receives
coordinates from three orbiting satellites. This GPS modem is used to get the
current location of a vehicle.

Speaker IC
This speaker is a single chip voice recording speaker that plays back solution
interfaced with microcontroller and announces the data with the help of a speaker.

Circuit Operation of Bus Arrival Announcement System


This project consists of an 8051 microcontroller, a GPS Modem and a LCD Display. This
entire circuit is placed inside a bus or train. The power supply provides the voltage to
entire circuit. The GPS modem consists of a receiver that receives the signals from the
satellites based on latitude, longitude and altitude. These coordinate values are stored in
the microcontroller. These coordinates represent the bus or train locations. These
coordinates values are compared with the values from the GPS receiver.

These coordinated values are equal to the latest coordinates coming from the GPS
modem and are converted into TTL level with the help of MAX 232. If the latest values
match with the stored coordinates values in the microcontroller, it displays the location
name on the LCD display, and then announces the stop name by using the Speaker IC.
This project is helpful for the people who are new to a city.

This is all about the GPS technology andmicrocontroller-based project for bus location
announcement system that uses GPS technology. We Hope that you have got a better
understanding of this overall topic. Furthermore, for any help, you can contact us by
commenting in the comments section given below.