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SK IMRAN

9TH A
9132

Introduction
Is the world getting warmer?
If so, are the actions of mankind to blame for

earths temperature increases?


What can/should be done about these issues?

History of Earths Climate


Earth formed ~4.6 billion years ago
Originally very hot
Suns energy output only 70% of present
Liquid water present ~4.3 billion years

History
of
Earths
Climate
Life appeared ~3.8 billion years ago
Photosynthesis began 3.5-2.5 billion years

ago

Produced oxygen and removed carbon dioxide

and methane (greenhouse gases)


Earth went through periods of cooling
(Snowball Earth) and warming

Earth began cycles of glacial and interglacial

periods ~3 million years ago

Solar
Earths
Temperature
Sun

Energy
Solar
Energy

Earths Temperature
Sun

Solar
Energy

Radiation
Cooling

Earths Temperature

Solar

Sun

Energy

Radiation
Cooling

Earths Temperature
Sun
Solar
Energy

Radiation
Cooling

Sun

Greenhouse Effect

Earths Atmospheric
NonGases
Nitrogen (N )
2

Oxygen (O2)

Greenhouse
Gases
99%

Water (H2O)
Carbon Dioxide (CO2)
Methane (CH4)

Greenhouse
Gases
1%

The U.S. emits about 6.4 billion metric


tons of greenhouse gases annually, 25%
of the worlds total.

6.4 billion metric tons


CO2/yr

These greenhouse gases last a


long time
Carbon dioxide stays in the
atmosphere for approximately
100 years, methane lasts about
12 years. Other greenhouse
gases last even longer.

Warming begets more warming


As these gases continue to raise surface
temperatures, they trigger the release of even
greater quantities of carbon dioxide and methane
that are currently trapped in frozen Arctic
permafrost and tundra soils, further increasing
temperatures.

A feedback mechanism ensues


potentially causing runaway global warming.

Carbon (109 metric tons)

Worldwide Carbon
8
Emissions
Total
7
6
5

Liquid fuel
Solid fuel
Gas fuel

4
3
2
1
0
1750

1800

1850
1900
Year

1950

2000

Carbon (109 metric tons)

Annual
Carbon Emissions
8
6

Annual carbon emissions


Atmospheric CO2
Atmospheric CO2 average

0
1955

1965

1975
1985
Year

1995

2005

Future Carbon Dioxide


Levels
Increasing CO emissions, especially in China
2

and developing countries


Likely to double within 150 years:
Increased coal usage
Increased natural gas usage
Decreased petroleum usage (increased cost

and decreasing supply)

Households are Big Contributors to Climate Change

Of all U.S. greenhouse gas


emissions come from
households:
Vehicles
Home Heating
Electricity

So how can each of us slow


global warming now?

Reduce our consumption of fossil fuels


Because greenhouse gas emissions are tied very closely
to our energy consumption, using less fossil fuel based
energy puts fewer greenhouse gases into the
atmosphere.
Mountaintop removal for
coal mining near Rawl,
This will help slow global warming.
West Virginia.
50% of electricity in the
United States is produced
from coal.

Average Electricity Emission


Factors

Kitchen Light Fixture

Three 60 Watt Bulbs

18 W

3
bulbs

54 x 10

18 x3
54 W

10 hours a
day

540
Wh/day

540x365

197,100
Wh/day

197,100
1000
197.1
kWh/yr

197 kWh
$115.34
743.3

$35.46
228.52
514.8

$79.88

We can make some simple substitutions


Replacing just 1 incandescent light bulb with 1 compact
florescent bulb saves about 150 pounds of carbon

dioxide per year!

If every American household replaced just 5 high-use


incandescent bulbs with compact florescent lights we'd
collectively save more than $8 billion each year in energy costs
and we would prevent the greenhouse gases equivalent to the
emissions from nearly 10 million cars.
Source: http://www.energystar.gov

Small changes really add up

Replace your old refrigerator


with a new Energy Star:
Annual savings:
$90; 700 pounds CO2

Set your thermostat down a few


degrees in the winter
Annual savings:
$135; 1400 pounds CO2
Drive JUST 10 fewer miles per week
Annual savings:
$80; 520 pounds CO2

Wash clothes in cold water only


Annual savings:
$70; 500 pounds CO2

Caulk and weather-strip around doors


and windows
Annual savings:
$80; 650 pounds CO2

Reduce your garbage by 10%


through greater recycling or reduced
packaging
Annual savings:
1200 pounds CO2

These are mid-range estimates


from published sources; your
savings may vary.
*

Blowing Up Your World

1. How many of you leave

your bedroom light on when


you are not in the room?

Turning off lights saves energy and

money. The more energy used, the more


rivers are dammed or more fossil fuel is
burned, causing air pollution and
increased levels of carbon dioxide in the
atmosphere. 2 pts d

Blowing Up Your
How World
many of you walked,

bicycled or took public


transportation to get to school
today, instead of coming by
private automobile?

Our reliance on cars that burn fossil fuels


is one of the major causes of increased
levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere
and it is the primary cause of urban smog.
3 pts u

Blowing Up Your World


How many of you, when you drink a soft drink,

throw the container into the garbage?


Throwing away containers of any kind wastes

energy and resources and adds to our waste


problem. Many towns are running out of landfill
space. 3 pts d

Blowing Up Your World


Blowing
Up
Your
World
How many of you eat fresh vegetables
instead of canned or frozen?
Fresh vegetables cook more quickly and are
usually more nutritious than frozen or canned
foods. Canned and frozen vegetables are often
over-processed, contain additives, contribute to
air pollution (transport and packaging) and add
to our waste problem. 4 pts u

Blowing Up Your World

How many of you use a hairdryer or

other energy-consuming convenience


appliance, especially in the morning?

Hairdryers use a lot of energy. In the

morning so much energy demand is


put on our grids that power
companies have to find other sources
of energy just to meet the morning
rush hour 2 pts d

. How many of you, when you go to a


Blowing
Up
Your
World
store, get a bag for your purchases,

even if you have only one or two small


items to carry?

Making paper and plastic bags uses

energy and resources. The bags add to


our litter and waste problems, and
plastic is not biodegradable. Recycling is
not the best answer because collecting
and recycling materials requires energy.
Instead, carry a reusable cloth bag or a
knapsack with you. 3 pts d

Blowing Up Your
World
How many of you carry your lunch to
school in a lunch box or reusable
container?
Making paper and plastic bags uses
energy and resources.

Blowing Up Your World


How many of you eat take-out or cafeteria

food that is served in foam or plastic


containers?

Polystyrene and other plastic

containers are made from precious


petrochemicals, do not decompose in
landfills, and release toxic gases
when they are burned in incinerators.
10 pts d

Blowing Up Your World


How many of you use handkerchiefs instead

of tissues and use cloth towels instead of


paper towels?
Paper comes from trees. The more of it we

use, the more trees that are cut down 2 pts d

Blowing
Up
Your
World
How many are changing incandescent
bulbs for new compact fluorescent bulbs?
Changing one bulb could save 150
pounds of carbon dioxide per year!
10 pts u

Blowing Up Your World


31 - 40 Very good. You're an environmentalist!
21 - 30 Good, you're starting to save the

world.
11 - 20 Lots of room for improvement.
0 - 10 You're exiled to the town dump!

Our take-home message

Each of us must take steps to protect


our Earth's climate.