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Design of Power Substation

Guided by:
C.P Behera
Asst. Professor

Submitted by:
Pankaj kr.jha
Regd no-0901221040
Electrical Engg

Contents

Introduction
What is substation?
Important points
Classification of substation
Substation equipments
Substation auxiliary
Designing
Conclusion

Introduction

Substation serve as sources of


quality energy supply for the
local area of distribution in
which these are located.
Their main functions are to
receive energy transmitted at
high
voltage
from
the
generating station, reduce the
voltage to a value appropriate
for local distribution and
provide facilities for switching.

What is
The Substation
assembly of apparatus ?

used
to
change
some
characteristics (e.g. voltage,
a.c. to d.c. ,freq, p.f. etc..)of
electrical supply is called a
substation.

Important Points

It should be located at a proper site(i.e. at the


center of gravity of load).
It should provide safe and reliable
arrangement.
It should be easily operated and maintained.
It should involve minimum capital costs.

Classification of
Substation
Substation

ccording to service requirement


According to constructional featur

According to Service
requirement

Transformer Substation: Transformer are installed to transform


power from one level to another as per needs.
Switching Substations: This substation meants for switching
operation of powerlines with out transforming the voltage.
Power factor correction Substation: This substation installed to
increase the power factor to minimise losses.
Frequency Changer Substation: This substation installed where
speed controlled of motor required.
Converting Substation: This substation convert a.c to d.c or vice
versa.
Industrial Substation: This substation installed for supply power
only to industry.

According To Constructional
Features

Indoor Substation:In this substation the apparatus are installed with in


the substation building.This substation employed For voltage upto
11k.v.
Outdoor Substation:This subststion are installed in open land.This
substation employed For voltage beyond 66k.v.
Underground Substation:This substation are installed under the
ground in thicky populated city where cost of the land is more.
Pole-Mounted Substation:This substation are erect for distribution of
power in localities.This is employed for the transformer upto 250
kva.).
Foundation Mounted Substation :This substation are installed for
transformer which are too heavy.(rating beyond 250Kva).

Substation equipments

Bus bar:It is the conductor connecting power line to substation


equipments.
Insulators & fittings:Insulator fix and isolate the bus bar
system.
Isolating Switch:This is used for disconnecting equipment for
maintance and repair.
Relays & Circuit Breaker:CB open and close a circuit under
normal and fault condition.
Power Transformers:These are used in substation to step up or
step down the voltage.
Instrument Transformer:used for measuring .
Metering & Indicating Instrument:used to watch over the
circuit quantities.
Power line carrier communication systems
Coupling capacitors and wave traps

Basic Equipments In A
Substation

Substation Auxiliary

AC/DC supply:AC supply is used for substation auxillaries


and DC supply for relay operation.
Oil handling system: It used for purifying oil from moisture.
Illumination: Substation should be properly illuminated for
safety.
Compressed air system: This system required for functioning
of CB.
Service bay: These are required to carry the equipments to
installation side.
Fire extinguishers

Lightning/Surge
Arresters

Isolating Switch
Use three types of crystals

1.

Two locking
One motive connected to stator

Locking mechanism

2.

Normally locked: Spindle will not


move if no power applied
Normally free: Spindle moves
under external force

Circuit
Breaker

Power
Transformer

Instrument
Transformer

Control Room

Bus-Bar
Arrangement
Piezoelectric motors
Piezo Generators
Actuators
Ultrasonic Transducers
And many more

Designing

Site selection.
Design of structures.
Design of foundation for
transformers & structures(IE
Rules 64).
Control room building plant.
Cable trench & drainage.
Design of earthing.
Protection schemes & interlocks.

Design of 11kv/400v
indoor sub-station

Design of polemounted substation


Converts an
electrical signal
into precisely
controlled
physical
displacement.

Critical
specifications

Conclusion

Substation is the heart of electric


power system. So the design
should be such that it will
provide continuous , quality &
desired power with safety.

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