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# Mathematics III

(BTD 28103)
SERIES METHOD
(Chap. 6,7,8)

## Arithmetic Progression (51)

Important terms:
a the first term
d the common difference
where: d = T2 T1 = T3 T2
The nth. term,Tn= a+(n-1)d
The sum of n terms,
al
S n n

; l a (n 1)d

## l is the last term

n
2a n 1 d
2
2

Exercise:
Problem 1. Determine (a) the ninth,
and (b) the sixteenth term of the
series 2, 7, 12, 17, . . .

Exercise:
Problem 2. The 6th term of an AP is
17 and the 13th term is 38.
Determine the 19th term.

Exercise:
Problem 3. Determine the number of
the term whose value is 22 in the
1
1
series 2 , 4, 5 , 7, . . .
2

Exercise:
Problem 4. Find the sum of the first
12 terms of the series 5, 9, 13, 17, . .

Exercise:
Problem 5. Find the sum of the first
21 terms of the series 3.5, 4.1, 4.7,
5.3, . . .

DIY exercises:
Problem 6. The sum of 7 terms of an
AP is 35 and the common difference
is 1.2. Determine the first term of the
series.
Problem 7. Three numbers are in
arithmetic progression. Their sum is
15 and their product is 80. Determine
the three numbers.
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DIY exercises:
Problem 8. Find the sum of all the numbers
between 0 and 207 which are exactly
divisible by 3.
Problem 9. The first, twelfth and last
term of
1
1
31
376
an arithmetic progression are 4, 2 , and
2
respectively. Determine:
(a) the number of terms in the series
(b) the sum of all the terms
(c) the 80th term.
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Geometric Progression
Important terms:
a the first term
r the common ratio
T2
T3
where: r = =
T1

T2

The sum to
infinity,

a
S
(1 r )

## The nth. term,Tn= arn-1

The sum of n terms,
(1 r n )
Sn a
(1 r )
for r < 1

(r n 1)
Sn a
(r 1)
for r > 1
10

Exercise:
Problem 10. Determine the tenth
term of the series 3, 6, 12, 24, . . .

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Exercise:
Problem 11. Find the sum of the first
7 terms of the series, 1 , 1 1 , 4 1 , 13 1 ,
2

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Exercise:
Problem 12. The first term of a
geometric progression is 12 and the
fifth term is 55. Determine the 8th
term and the 11th term.

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Exercise:
Problem 13. Which term of the series
2187, 729, 243, . . . is 1 ?
9

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Exercise:
Problem 14. Find the sum of the first
9 terms of the series 72.0, 57.6,
46.08, . . .

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Exercise:
Problem 15. Find the sum to infinity
of the series 3, 1, 1 , . . .
3

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## The Binomial Series

Pascals Triangle

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18

Binomial Expression
a decreases in power moving from lefft to
right
x increases in power moving from left to
right
The coefficients of each term of the
middle coefficient when n is even and
coefficients when n is odd
Only applicable for integer values of n less
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Exercise:
Problem 1. Use the Pascals triangle
method to determine the expansion
of (a + x)7.

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Exercise:
Problem 2. Determine, using Pascals
triangle method, the expansion of
(2p 3q)5.

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Binomial Series/Theorem
A formula for raising a binomial
expression to any power without
lengthy multiplication.

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Exercise:
Problem 3. Use the binomial series to
determine the expansion of (2+x)7.

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Exercise:
Problem 4. Expand c 1
c

binomial series.

using the

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Exercise:
Problem 5. Without fully expanding
(3 + x)7, determine the fifth term.

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Exercise:
Problem 7. Evaluate (1.002)9 using
the binomial theorem correct to (a) 3
decimal places and (b) 7 significant
figures.

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Exercise:
Problem 8. Evaluate (0.97)6 correct to
4 significant figures using the
binomial expansion.

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Maclaurins Series/Theorem

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Exercise:
Problem 1. Determine the first four
terms of the power series for cos x.

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Exercise:
Problem 2. Determine the power
series for cos 2.

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Exercise:
Problem 3. Determine the power
series for tan x as far as the term in
x3.

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Exercise:
Problem 4. Expand ln(1+x) to five
terms.

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Exercise:
Problem 5. Expand ln(1x) to five
terms.

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Exercise:
Problem 7. Use Maclaurins series to
find the expansion of (2+x)4.

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Exercise:
Problem 8. Expand
term in x4.

x
2

e as far as the

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