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Models & Theories of Planned Change

Dr. Ruchi Sinha

INTRODUCTION
Organizational development is planned change in
organizational context.
The development of models of
facilitated the development of OD.

planned

change

Models and Theories depict in words or pictures, the


important features:
of some phenomenon
Describe those features as variables and
Specifies the relationships among variables.
A model is an integrated way of explaining
Why and how change takes, based on a known
and
acceptable
basic
explanation
of
relationships of several aspects involved.

Planned change theories are


Rudimentary
in explaining relationships
among variables but pretty good for
identifying the important variables involved.
Several recent theories show great promise for
increasing our understanding of
What happens and
How it happens in planned change
It is obvious that there are different ways of
explaining change, depending on what theory we
use

Kurt Lewin's Three Step Model

What is occurring at any point in time is a resultant


in a field of opposing forces. i.e. the status-quo
Status-quo what ever is happening right now is the
result of forces pushing in opposite directions. (eg. Of
equilibrium point)
Manufacturing
Morale
Force-field Analysis is a technique that
Helps in identifying major forces that make up the
field of forces and
Develop action plans for moving the equilibrium
point in one direction or the other.

Kurt Lewin's Three Step Model

Kurt Lewin the father of change processes identified


three phases in initiating and establishing any
change
Unfreezing
Changing or Moving
Refreezing
Kurt Lewin argued that successful change in
organizations should follow these three steps:
Unfreezing the status-quo
Movement to a new state
Refreezing the new change to make it permanent
The status-quo can be considered to be a state of
equilibrium.

Kurt Lewin's Three Step Model

To move from this equilibrium to overcome the


pressures of both individual resistance and group
conformity, unfreezing is necessary.

Ineffectiveness

Restraining Forces

Supporting
Forces
Effectiveness

Unfreeze

Time

Point at which change occurs


Change

Refreeze

Stage 1: Unfreezing:
Creating motivation & readiness to change through
disconfirmation or lack of confirmation
creation of guilt or anxiety
provision of psychological safety.
Throughout this process, information can be shown
which will demonstrate discrepancies between
behaviors desired by organization members and those
behaviors currently exhibited.
In other words, this is the stage in which employees
can be influenced to engage in change activities.

Stage 2:
moving

Changing through cognitive restructuring

Helping the client to see, judge, feel things & react to


things differently based on a new point of view
obtained through:
Identifying with a new role model, mentor etc.
Scanning the new environment for a new relevant
information.
The person acquires information & evidence showing
that the change is desirable & possible. Throughout
the moving process, the behavior of the organization,
department, or individual is shifted to a new level.
This shift involves the intervention of new behaviors,
values,
and
attitudes
through
changes
in
organizational structures and processes

Stage 3: Refreezing
Helping the client to integrate the new point of
view into:
The total personality & self concept
Significant relationships
In this stage there is integration of new behaviors
into the persons personality & attitudes.
The term significant relationships refers to imp
people in the persons social environment-do they
approve of the changes. During the refreezing stage,
the organization is stabilized at a new equilibrium.

Ronald Lippitt, Jeanne Watson, Bruce Westley


Seven stage model : Represents the consulting process

Phase 1: Developing a need for change. It corresponds to Lewins


unfreezing phase.
Phase 2: Establishing a Change relationship. In this phase a client
system in need of help & a change agent from outside the system
establishing a work relationship.

Phase 3: Clarifying or diagnosing the client systems problems.

Phase 4: Examining all alternative routes & goals & intentions of action.

Phase 5: Transforming actions into actual change efforts. Phase 3, 4 & 5


corresponds to Lewin's moving phase.
Phase 6: Generalizing & stabilizing change. This phase corresponds to
Lewins Refreezing phase.
Phase 7: Achieving a terminal relationship, that is terminating the
client- consultant relationship

Burke-Litwin Model

This model of organizational change and


individual and organizational change was given
by Warner Burke and George Litwin.
Model shows how to create first
order(transactional) change and second order
(transformational) change in the organization.
In first order change, some features of the
organization change but the fundamental nature
of the organization remains the same.
In second order change, the nature of the
organization is fundamentally and substantially
altered- the organization is transformed.

Bases for the model


Difference between Organizational Climate and organizational
culture

Organisation climate is
defined as people
perceptions and attitudes
about the organisationwhether it is good or bad
place to work.
These perceptions are
relatively easy to change
cause they are built on
employees reaction to
current managerial and
organizational practices.

Organizational Culture is
defined as deep seated
assumptions, values and
beliefs, that are enduring,
often unconscious.

Changing culture if often more


difficult than changing
climate.

Transactional Vs Transformational Leaders


Transactional

leaders are leaders


who inspire followers to transcend
their own self interest for the good
of the organization and who are
capable of having a profound and
extraordinary effect on their
followers

Transactional leaders are those


who guide or motivate their
followers in the direction of
established goals by clarifying
role and task requirements.

Transactional
leadership
embodies a fair exchange
between leaders and followers
that
leads
to
normal
performance.

Transactional
leadership
is
sufficient for causing first order
change.

Transformational

leadership
embodies inspiration which leads
to new heights of performance.

Transformational

leadership is
required for causing second order
change.

Premise of the Model


OD
interventions
directed
towards
structure,management practices, and systems
(policies and procedures) result in first-order
change i.e. changing the organisation climate;
OD interventions directed towards mission and
strategy, leadership, and organizational culture
result in second order change i.e. changing the
organization culture.

The Burke &


Litwin Model

Transformational Factors Involved in Second Order Change

Transactional Factors Involved in First Order Change

The Purpose
As an OD practitioner we have to do the
following:
1.
2.
3.

Size up the change situation


Determine the kind of change required
(Transactional or Transformational)
Targets interventions towards factors of
organization that produce the desired
change.

Porras and Robertson


Model of
Organizational Change

The Basic Premise

OD interventions alter the features of work


settings causing changes in individuals behavior,
which in turn lead to individual and organizational
improvements. Organisation change occurs only
when individual change their behavior, and these
behavior changes occur when elements of work
setting have been modified by OD interventions.

Work setting consists of four factors: organization


arrangement, social factors, physical setting and
technology.

Organizational Work
Setting Factors

1.Goals
2.Strategies
3. Structure
4. Administrative policies
and procedures
5. Administrative
systems
6. Reward system
7. Ownership

1. Culture
2. Management style
3. Interaction processes
4. Informal patterns
and networks
5. Individual Attributes

1.Space
Configuration
2.Physical
Ambience
3. Interior Design
4. Architectural
Design

1. Tools, equipments
and machinery
2. Information Tech.
3. Job Design
4. Work Flow Design
5. Tech Expertise
6. Tech Procedures
7. Tech Systems

The Change Based Organizational Framework

Systems Theory

Another foundation of OD is Systems Theory, which


views organizations as open systems in active
exchange with their environments.
This
explains
system
theory
describes
the
characteristics OD Systems, and show how systems
theory enhances the practice of OD.
Ludwig Von Bertalanffy first articulated
principles of General Systems Theory in 1950.

the

Kartz and Kuhn were the first to apply open systems


theory to organizations in 1966.
Systems Theory is one of the most powerful tools
available
to
understand
the
dynamics
of
organizations and organizational change.

Fagan defines Systems as


a set of objects together with relationships
between the objects and between their
attributes
Von Bertalanffy refers to a System of
elements standing in interaction .
Kast and Rosenzweig defines System as
an organized, unitary whole composed or more
interdependent parts, components, or subsystems and delineated by identifiable boundaries
from its environmental supra-system.
To summarize, System denotes Interdependency,
inter-connectedness among elements in a set that
constitutes an identifiable whole or gestalt.

Sources of
Energy
Materials
Information
HR

Inputs

Transforming
Mechanism

Outputs

Internal Interface
Feedback Mechanism

Users

External Interface
Feedback Mechanis

Characteristics of Open Systems are

All Open systems are Input-throughput-output


mechanisms.
Open systems have purposes and goals, the reason
of their existence.
Steady state and Dynamic Homeostasis

Preservation of the character of the system


Over time systems get elaborated, differentiated,
specialized and complex over time, this process is called
differentiation.
With increased differentiation, increased integration and
coordination.

Characteristics of Open Systems are

Information is important in several ways..

Feedback is information from the environment about


system performance.
Systems requires two kinds of feedback, negative and
positive they are deviation-correcting feedback and
deviation-amplifying feedback.

Another characteristics of systems is equifinality.

These characteristics of open system explain many


phenomena we observe in organizations