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General Anatomy

Introduction to Medical
Terminology

By: Dr Chaman Lal


BSPT, PPDPT, Dip.In.Sports Inj, MPPS(Pak),
Post-Graduation in Clinical Neurophysiology
(Aga Khan University Hospital),
Registered EEG.T(USA),
Member of ABRET, AANEM & ASET(USA)

Study Outlines
Brief History of Anatomy & Anatomists
Anatomy definition
Branches of Anatomy
Body Type-Somatotype
Anatomical Body Position
Planes of Motion
Anatomical Directional Terms
Anatomy Movement
References

General Anatomy Introduction By CK

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HISTORY OF ANATOMY

HIPPOCRATES(460-377BC)

Greek physician
Father of Medicine
His name is memorialized in the
Hippocratic oath
Humoral theory :
Four body humors
-Blood
-Phlegum
-Yellow bile
-Black bile
Attributed diseases to natural causes .
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HEROPHILUS (about 325BC)

Father of Anatomy
Performed:
-Vivi-sections
(dissections of living humans) and
dissections of human cadavers
Regarded Brain As Seat Of Intelligence
Described Cerebrum, Cerebellum, Fourth
Ventricle
First to identify nerves as sensory or motor.

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SIXTEENTH CENTURY
VESALIUS(1514- 1654)

His work De humani corporis fabrica


written in 7 volumes
His work revolutionized the teaching of
anatomy and ruled for two centuries
He has not attached his name to the
parts of body he described unlike
anatomists
Sylvius,
Fallopius,
Eustachius.
Father of Modern Anatomy
Reformer of Anatomy
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ANATOMY
Anatomy

Ana (Gr)

Apart
Dissection

Tome (Gr)

To Cut

Dissecare (Latin)

To cut apart

Definition: The scientific study of structure and the


relationships among structures is called Anatomy

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SUBDIVISIONS
OF
ANATOMY
Branches of
Anatomy

Gross/ Cadaveric Anatomy


Microscopic Anatomy (Histology)
Developmental Anatomy (Embryology)
Living Anatomy
Clinical Anatomy (Applied)
Neuroanatomy
Surface (Topographic) Anatomy
Radiographic Anatomy
Comparative Anatomy
Sectional Anatomy
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Gross Anatomy
Definition:

That which can be seen with the naked eye

Kinds/Types:

Regional:
Body

Systematic:
Body

studied by area
studied by system

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REGIONAL ANATOMY

GROSS ANATOMY
- Brain

- Head and neck

-Thorax
- Upper Limb

- Abdomen
- Lower limb
SYSTEMIC ANATOMY

- Integumentary system
- Skeletal system
- Muscular system
- Nervous system
- Cardiovascular system
- Lymphatic system
- Endocrine system
- Digestive system, Respiratory system,
Urogenital
system
General Anatomy Introduction By CK

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Microscopic Anatomy
Definition:

That which can be seen with the assisted eye

Kinds/Types:

Cytology:
The

Histology:
The

study of tissues

Organology:
The

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study of cells

study of organs
General Anatomy Introduction By CK

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Developmental Anatomy
Definition:

The study of anatomical changes in a life cycle

Kinds/Types:

Embryology:
The

Postnatal development:
The

study of prenatal development


study of structures after birth

Ontogeny:
Total

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development of an individual
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Comparative Anatomy
Definition:

Comparison of structures between organisms

Kinds/Types::

Vertebrate:
Comparison

Phylogeny:
The

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of structures among the vertebrate classes

study of phyla, and their relationships

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Somatotypes

Ectomorph

Mesomorph

Muscular Physique

Endomorph

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Small Bone Lean


Body

Round soft body

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Positions of the Body


There

a)
b)
c)
d)

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are four basic positions of the body ;


Anatomical Position
Supine Position
Prone Position
Lithotomy Position

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CK

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a).

The anatomical position is a standardized method of


observing or imaging the body that allows precise and
consistent anatomical references.

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Anatomical Position

Standing Upright
Facing The Observer, Head Level
Eyes Facing Forward
Feet Flat On The Floor
Arms At The Sides
Palms turned forward (ventral)

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Anatomical Position
Definition:

In this position, the body is erect, the


eyes look straight to the front, the
upper limbs hang bye the side of the
trunk with the palms directed
forwards, and the lower limbs are
parallel with the toes pointing
forwards.

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General Anatomy Introduction By CK

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b).

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Supine Position

If the body is lying face up, it is in the supine position.

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b). Prone Position


If

the body is lying face down, it is in the prone


position.

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General Anatomy Introduction By CK

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d). Lithotomy Position


Lying

supine with buttocks at the edge of the table,


the hips and knees fully flexed and the feet
strapped in position.

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General Anatomy Introduction By CK

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Planes of Motion

Sagittal Plane
Frontal Plane
Transverse Plane

Example of how planes would cut the brain

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CK

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General Anatomy Introduction By CK

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Body Planes

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General Anatomy Introduction By CK

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Body Planes
Sagittal -- vertical plane that
divides the body into RIGHT
and LEFT parts
Frontal -- vertical plane that
divides the body into
ANTERIOR and POSTERIOR
parts

Transverse
Plane

Transverse -- horizontal planes


that divides the body into TOP
and BOTTOM parts

Frontal
Plane

Sagittal Plane

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Cardinal or Mid Planes


DEFINITION -- if a
plane passes through
the body such that it
divides it into equal
mass halves

SAGITTAL
PLANE

MID-SAGGITAL
PLANE

INTERSECTION -- the
point at which the midsagittal, mid-frontal, and
mid-transverse planes
intersect is the CENTER
OF MASS
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Sagittal Plane
Divides

the body into


left and right
Passes from front to
back

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General Anatomy Introduction By


CK

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Frontal Plane
Divides

the body
into front and back
Passes from side to
side

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General Anatomy Introduction By


CK

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Transverse Plane
Divides

body into top


and bottom
Passes
perpendicular
to the long axis
of the body

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General Anatomy Introduction By CK

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Anatomical Direction

Directional Terms Used in


Describing Anatomy
SUPERIOR

Directed upwards or towards the

head
INFERIOR Directed downwards or towards
the feet
ANTERIOR Directed towards the front of the
body
POSTERIOR Directed towards the back of the
body
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General Anatomy Introduction By CK

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General Anatomy Introduction By CK

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Anatomical Direction

Superior

Inferior

Anterior

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Posterior

Higher than another


structure
Lower than another
Structure
In front of another
structure
Behind another structure

General Anatomy Introduction By


CK

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Anatomical Direction

Medial

Lateral

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Proximal

Distal

Closer to the long axis of


the body
Farther from the long
axis of the body
Structure closer to the
beginning of the
extremity
Structure farther from
the beginning of the
extremity

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CK

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Anatomical Direction

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Superficial
Deep

Nearer to the surface


Farther from the surface

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CK

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Anatomical Movement

Movement

Flexion

Extension

Abduction

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Adduction

Decrease in the angle of


a joint
Increase in the angle of
a joint
Movement away from
the midline of the body
Movement toward the
midline of the body

General Anatomy Introduction By


CK

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Movement

Dorsiflexion

Plantar Flexion

Inversion

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Eversion

Flexion of the foot at the


ankle
Extension of the foot at
the ankle
Sole of the foot turned
inward
Sole of the foot turned
outward

General Anatomy Introduction By


CK

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Movement

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Supination
Pronation

Palms upward

Palms downward

Pivot motion about the long


axis of the body

Combination of
Abduction,Adduction and
Rotation

Rotation
Circumduction

General Anatomy Introduction By


CK

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MCQs
Q. During flexion of the arm, the arm moves:
a) Upwards
b) Downwards
c) Medial
d) Lateral

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General Anatomy Introduction By


CK

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Success doesnt lie in the Results


but in the Efforts
Being the best is NOT so important
Doing the best is all that Matters!

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