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HOCKEY

HISTORY OF HOCKEY
- Historical records show that a crude form of
hockey was played in Egypt 4,000 years ago.
Ireland in 1272 BC.
- Ethiopia around 1,000 BC.
- 600 BC in Ancient Greece.
-The first Olympic Hockey Competition for
men was held in London in 1908.

HISTORY OF HOCKEY
-

FIH (International Hockey Fedaretion) was


founded on January 7, 1924 in Paris

- Paul Lautey as first president


- FIH consists of five continental associations
and 127 members of the association, in cooperation to promote and develop the sport.
Geographically, there are 17 from Africa, 20
from Asia, 45 from Europe, 9 from Oceania
and 26 from the Americas.

HISTORY OF HOCKEY
- Malaysian hockey confideration (MHC) established in
1954
- Presidents of Malaysian Hockey Federation from
1957 to current:
1. Tun Abdul Razak (1957-1976)
2. HRH Sultan Azlan Shah (1976-2004)
3. DYTM Raja Dr. Nazrin Shah (2004-2006)
4. Admiral Tan Sri Dato' Seri Mohammad Anwar
Mohammad Nor (19th. Dec 2006-1st. Nov 2008)
5. KDYTM Tengku Abdullah Sultan Haji Ahmad Shah
(1st. Nov 2008-current)

TYPE OF HOCKEY

EQUIPMENT

GOOLKEEPER

PLAYER

BALL

- Standard field hockey balls are hard spherical balls,


made of plastic (sometimes over a cork core), and are
usually white, although they can be any colour as long
as they contrast with the playing surface.
- The balls have a circumference of 224235mm (8.8
9.3in) and weigh 156163g (5.55.7oz).
-The ball is often covered with indentations to reduce
aquaplaning that can cause an inconsistent ball speed
on wet surfaces.

STICK

- The stick is usually between 8095 cm (31-38") long


and traditionally made of wood but now almost all the
more expensive sticks are composite, that is made of a
number of materials.
- Usually contain a combination of fibreglass, aramid
fiber and carbon fibre in varying proportions according
to the characteristics (flexibility; stiffness; resistance
to impact and abrasion) required.

SHOES

GOALS

- Goals are positioned outside of the field of play at the centre of and
touching each backline.
- Two white, vertical goal posts 2.14m high are joined by a white,
horizontal crossbar 3.66m wide.
- Sideboards 460mm high and 1.20m wide are placed at right angles
to the goal line.
- Backboards 460mm high and 3.66m wide are placed at right angles
to the sideboards and are fixed to the end of the sideboards.
- Nets are fitted loosely to the back of the goal posts and crossbar at
intervals not more than 150mm.

HOCKEY FIELD
- The pitch is a 91.4 55m

(100.0 60yd) rectangular


field.
- At each end is a goal 2.14m
(7ft) high and 3.66m (12ft)
wide, as well as lines across
the field 22.90m (25yd) from
each end-line (generally
referred to as the 23-metre
lines or the 25-yard lines) and
in the center of the field. A
spot 0.15m (6in) in diameter,
called the penalty spot or
stroke mark, is placed with
its centre 6.40m (7yd) from
the centre of each goal. The
shooting circle is 15m
(16yd)
from the base line.

RULES AND
PLAY

Teams.
There are 11 players on the pitch with up to five substitutes on the
side-line. Players can substitute virtually at any time and any
number of times.
Player positions.
Every team has a goalkeeper - although, rarely, a team will play only
with field players to put more players into attack. The other 10
players are called 'field players', and are in three categories attackers, midfielders and defenders.

RULES AND
PLAY
Stick handling.
Hockey players must be able to control, pass, push, stop and hit the
ball with a hockey stick. This is known as stick work, or stick
handling. Keeping the ball under close control is called dribbling.
The head of a hockey stick has a rounded side (the right side) and a
flat side (the left side). It is only with the flat, left-hand side of the
stick and the edges of that side which can be used to play the ball.
No feet.
Field players are not allowed to use their feet (or any other parts of
their bodies) to control the ball. Only the goalkeeper is allowed to
use hands, feet, etc. to stop or propel the ball when defending in his
or her own circle.

RULES AND
PLAY
Ball in the air
In general play, the ball cannot be raised into the air when hit. It can
though be raised by using a scooping or long pushing action of the
stick.
A player will be penalised if they lift the ball in a way which is
dangerous to another player. When the ball is in the air, a player
must not play it above shoulder height.
A defender can use their stick at any height to save a shot at goal because attackers are allowed to raise the ball when trying to score
a goal.
Many shots are raised because it is an effective way of scoring
goals.

RULES AND
PLAY
Field Goals
Field goals may only be scored from within the 'circle', which is
actually a roughly semi-circular area in front of the opponents' goal.
If an attacker hits the ball from outside the 'circle' and it goes into the
goal or is touched by a defender on the way, it does not count.

Penalty Corner.

RULES AND
PLAY

If a defending team breaks certain rules, the other team can


be awarded a 'penalty corner'. Normally this happens when a team
breaks a rule within their own 'shooting circle', but these can also be
awarded when a defender is guilty of a particularly bad foul in the
defending quarter of the field.
For a penalty corner, play is stopped to allow the teams to take their
positions. One attacker stands with the ball on the back-line. This
player will 'push out' the ball to other attackers waiting to take a shot.
The other attackers wait at the top of the shooting circle to get the
ball.

RULES AND
PLAY
Up to five defenders (including the goalkeeper) position themselves
behind the back-line to defend. The rest must stay behind the half
way line until the 'push out' is taken. The ball is 'pushed out' to one
of the attackers. Before a shot can be taken, the ball must first travel
outside the circle. The receiver then usually pushes it back into the
circle for a shot either by themself or another attacker.
If the first shot is a hit (as opposed to other types of shots, like a
'flick' or a 'scoop'), the ball must enter the goal no higher than than
460mm. It is easy to tell if the ball is at that height because the board
at the back of the goal is the same height.

RULES AND
PLAY
If the first shot is a 'scoop' or a 'flick' (shots that are lifted into the air
with a long scooping or pushing action of the stick) then the ball can
cross the goal-line at any height. Once the attacker on the back-line
begins to push the ball out, the defenders on the back line may
move into the circle.

RULES AND
PLAY
Penalty Strokes.
A penalty stroke may be awarded for a number of reasons, the most
common being an offence by a defender in the circle that prevented
a goal. In a penalty stroke, a shot is taken by one player and
defended only by the goalkeeper. The shot is taken from 6.4 meters
directly in front of the goal. All other players must stand outside the
circle, about 23 metres away. Match time is stopped during a
penalty stroke.

RULES AND
PLAY
Free Hits.
For general offences, a free hit is given against the team which
fouled. Common fouls are obstructing an opponent from playing the
ball, interfering with the stick or body when tackling, kicking the ball
and playing the ball dangerously.
For a free hit, opponents are given the ball where the offence took
place. The ball is initially stationary and play will often be re-started
by passing the ball to a teammate nearby while all opponents are 5
metres away. However, the player taking the free hit can also begin
to dribble the ball him/herself.

RULES AND
PLAY
Duration of a match.
A regulation hockey match lasts 70 minutes - which is broken into
two halves of 35 minutes each with a break of 5 to 10 minutes. The
team with the most goals at the end of the 70 minutes is the winner.
It is also possible for a match to end in a draw.
But in some matches - such as a championship game - there must
be a winner. In those cases, a match which is tied, it goes into extra
time (the first team to score wins), and if necessary, to a shootout.

Umpires.

RULES AND
PLAY

Each match is controlled by two umpires. Each umpire


controls half of the pitch and works cooperatively in the
middle part of the pitch.
For bad or repeated offences by players, an umpire can
show them a card. A green card is a warning. A yellow card
means the player is suspended from the game for a
minimum of 5 minutes or the time the umpire decides
depending on the nature of the offence. A red card is for a
very serious offence and means the player is suspended for
the remainder of the match. If a player is suspended
temporarily or permanently, their team plays with fewer
players.
At world level competitions where the facilities are
available, a team playing or the umpires themselves can
refer a decision to the video umpire who can use slow
motion replays to advise the umpires on the pitch of the
correct decision.