You are on page 1of 24

TECHIQUES FOR TEACHING AND

REMEDIATING READING PROBLEMS

BY

MUHAMMAD ANIS

MUHAMAD AZWAN

MUHAMMAD FARID
AZMIDAH

SITI NURAFIQAH

BASAL READING
DEFINITON

The basal reading approach is a method of teaching


reading to children. The program's name comes from
the word "base" or "basic." It involves using a series of
books, or readers, tailored to a specific
reading
level.

Simply put,this means that the program has been


specifically designed to teach skills that have been
proven to be helpful in learning to read,such as
phonemic awareness,fluency,vocabulary, text
comprehension(including decodingandword attack
skills) andprosody.
This type of program is sometimes referred to as
ascientifically-based reading program.

ADVANTAGES OF A BASAL READING


PROGRAM

It's systematic and follows a logical sequence


The levels progress from emergent reader to advanced
reader with smooth transitions and consistency
Teachers are provided with the tools they need to
evaluate students' knowledge and progress

ADVANTAGES TO BASALS
Convenient package of materials, techniques, and
assessment devices.
Offer varied reading selections, an abundance of
practice material, carefully planned units and
lessons, and a wealth of follow-up and
enrichment activities.
Sequenced from grade to grade,providing
continuous reading instruction

DISADVANTAGES OF A BASAL READING


PROGRAM
Some teachers feel the program is too rigid and
doesn't engage students.
The stories do not match students interests,
making it hard to capture the attention of a
reluctant reader.
The approach is designed to work best in a
group and is often difficult to alter for students
who learn better individually or have learning
disabilities.

DISADVANTAGE TO BASALS
Core

of the program is the anthology,


workbook and manual to provide a base of
materials for all students to move
through.
Question of pacing and time spent with a
selection.
Basal selections are presented to the
whole class.Selections may lack sufficient
challenge for high achievers and will be
too hard for those reading below grade
level.

PHONIC APROACH
Definition :
- anapproachthat teaches the relation of the letters
(graphemes) to the sounds (phonemes) they represent to
teach reading.
(Halvorson 1992)
- teaches children to decode words by sounds, rather than
recognizing whole words. The emphasis in early years
teaching is on synthetic phonics, in which words are
broken up into the smallest units of sound (phonemes).

Phonicsis a method for


teachingreadingandwritingtheEnglish languageby
developing learners'phonemic awareness
the ability to hear, identify, and
manipulatephonemes,in order to teach the
correspondence between these sounds and
thespellingpatterns (graphemes) that represent
them.
The goal of phonics is to enable beginning readers to
decode new written words by sounding them out,or in
phonics terms,blendingthe sound-spelling patterns.

TYPE OF PHONICS

PHONIC-LINGUISTIC BASALS
Emphasis to reinforce phonic elements or
linguistic patterns.
Tightly controlled vocabulary and are used
primarily for struggling readers.
Selections are contrived so it is difficult to use
context clues.
Examples: Reading Mastery and Merrill
Linguistic Readers

LINGUISTIC APROACH

DEFINITON
:
Method for teaching reading (decoding skills) which
emphasizes use of word families.
For example, the child is taught to read and is
subsequently taught to decode words such as "cat,"
"bat," "sat, and "mat,". Early stories adhere strictly to
the words which have been taught previously and so
may sometimes seem nonsensical, e.g., "Sam sat on a
mat. The cat sat on a mat. The cat is fat," etc.

LANGUAGE-EXPERIENCE APPROACH
The language experience approach is an approach to
reading instruction based on activities and stories
developed from personal experiences of the learner.
Students dictate a story based on an experience they
have had.
The teacher writes the dictated story.

Through discussion, the teacher can help


students organize and reflect on their
experiences.
The stories about personal experiences are
written down by a teacher and read together
until the learner associates the written form of
the word with the spoken

BENEFITS OF THE LANGUAGE


EXPERIENCE APPROACH
It

brings together writing, reading, art, and


language.
It extends the learners' creativity in story
telling through writing.
It helps learners understand that what they
think and say can be written.
It is learner-centered and demonstrates that
the learners' thoughts and language are
valued.
It provides reading material that is
predictable and readable because it uses the
learners' natural language.

INDIVIDUALIZED READING
WORKSHOP
Reader's Workshop provides students with a
supportive environment that involves them in
authentic reading experiences that focus on the
strengths and needs of each individual student.
Reader's Workshop helps kids develop strong reading
skills through the use of a mini-lesson,shared reading,
read aloud,conferencing,independent reading,paired
reading,literature respons and Reader's Chair.

Preparation:

state-of-the-art class
conference and a minilesson to present a
skill/strategy lesson on predicting,
inferences, context clues, etc.
Self-Selected Reading and Responding:
approx. 30 min. silent reading and meet in
literature discussion group, write in
journal, work on an extension activity
Conferences: meet with teacher to discuss
the book through questioning

READY
TO
SEE
US
IN
ACTION?
Read to self

Students each have a book box full of "right fit"


books that they read from during read to self.

Read to someone
Students can practice developing their fluency by
reading to someone. This student is holding a
cardstock "check" so she remembers to check her
partner's understanding.

Work on writing
Students

work on original stories,lists,poems,letters,


etc... during work on writing.The writing area is stocked
with idea starters,decorative papers,pens, markers and
spelling ideas.

Work on words
Students practice weekly spelling and vocabulary
words through hands-on activities like Wikki Sticks,
using magnets and stamps to make words,dot makers
and letter cutouts.They can also practice sight words.

Listen to reading
Students use Leap Pads,TAG pens,RAZ-kids.com,CD
players and tape players to listen to fluent reading.

Thank you