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Welcome to the Schneider Electric

Seminar on
LV Power Concepts and Devices

Division - Name - Date - Language

Agenda for the evening:


Topic

Presenter

Time

LV Earthing Systems

Asrar Mufti

6.15 to 6.50 pm

LV Type Tested Panelboards

Shanker Shetty

6.50 to 7.30 pm

Break for Salah

7.30 to 7.50 pm

LV Power Circuit Breakers

Irfan Mufti

8.00 to 9.00 pm

LV Final Distribution Boards

Ibrahim Saleh

9.00 to 9.30 pm

Wiring Devices

Mohammad Al-Amoudi 9.30 to 10.00 pm

Dinner

Division - Name - Date - Language

10.00 pm

LV Earthing Systems.
as per IEC 60364 Installation Standard.

Fire protection

Risk analysis - the origins of fires in buildings

Studies carried out in Germany between 1980 and 1990


Fire 37 %

Lightning 1 %

Explosion 1 %

Cigarettes 6 %

Other 7 %

Electricity 41 %

41 % of fires are electrical in origin


this risk is far from negligible
it can be eliminated

Division - Name - Date - Language

E92446

Accidents 7 %

Fire protection

Main cause
Ageing of the installation results in:
less effective insulation
the risk of very small leakage currents
Presence of humidity
Leakage
currents

Small
discharges

E92462

E92461

Carbonisation
of insulation
(dust)

There is a real risk of fire starting at leakage currents of 300 mA

Division - Name - Date - Language

Basic principle

Low Voltage Earthing Systems

Zone 1 : perception
Zone 2 : unpleasant sensation

T(ms)

Zone 3 : muscular contractions


(reversible effects)
Zone 4 : risk of ventricular

10 000
5000

fibrillation.(irreversible)

c1-c2 :prob. increases by 5%


c2-c3 :prob. increases by 50%
> c3

:prob. more than50 %

IEC 60479-1 Effect of current on the human body


Time ms/current mA curve for AC current from
15 to 100 Hz
b

c1 c2 c3

2000
1000
500

200
100
50

Body Impedance = 2000 Ohms.(Dry)


= 1000 Ohms.(Wet)
Max. Withstand Current = 25 mA

20
10
0,1 0,2
1
0,5 mA

5 10

30 mA

100

500 2000 5000 (mA)


1000

UL (MAX. TOUCH VOLTAGE) = 2000x 0.025 = 50 V (Dry Conditions)


= 1000x0.025 = 25 V (Wet Conditions)

Division - Name - Date - Language

Standard IEC 60479-1

Protection
of people

Critical current thresholds

E92450

mA

Division - Name - Date - Language

1A

Cardiac arrest

75 mA

Irreversible cardiac
fibrillation

30 mA

Breathing arrest

10mA

Muscular contraction

0.5 mA

Tingling

Basic principle

Low Voltage Earthing Systems

Maximum Touch Voltage Time (Protection of people according to IEC 364)


Against Indirect Contact
with Automatic Disconnection of Supply
Maximum touch voltage time in UL = 50 V
conditions
prospective
touch
voltage (V)
< 50
50
75
90
120
150
220
280
350
500

Division - Name - Date - Language

maximum protective device


disconnection time(Seconds)
AC current
DC current
5
5
0.60
0.45
0.34
0.27
0.17
0.12
0.08
0.04

5
5
5
5
5
1
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1

Maximum touch voltage time in UL = 25 V


conditions (sockets/wet areas)
prospective
touch
voltage (V)

maximum protective device


disconnection time(Seconds)
AC current
DC current

25
50
75
90
110
150
230
280

5
0.48
0.30
0.25
0.18
0.12
0.05
0.02

5
5
2
0.80
0.50
0.25
0.06
0.02

Low Voltage Earthing Systems

Basic principle
Protection of people, direct contact
Definition
Contact of persons or livestock with
live parts which may result in electric
shock

Division - Name - Date - Language

10

Low Voltage Earthing Systems

Protection of people, direct contact


E36914

Types of protection

Basic principle

Insulation
Distance

IP2X or IPXXB

Division - Name - Date - Language

TBT < 25 V

30 mA

11

Standard IEC 60364

Protection
of people

Indirect contact

E92454

Contact of persons or livestock


with exposed conductive parts
in case of a fault

Division - Name - Date - Language

12

Low Voltage Earthing Systems

Basic principle
Protection of people according to IEC 364

Protection against indirect contact with automatic disconnection of


supply
Earthing of all the exposed conductive parts of electrical equipment and
all accessible conductive parts
2 simultaneously accessible exposed conductive parts must be
connected to the same earth electrode
Automatic disconnection by a protective device of the circuit in which a
dangerous insulation fault occurs
The protective device must operate within a time that is compatible with
"Maximum Touch Voltage & Time-Safety requirements"

Division - Name - Date - Language

13

Earthing Systems - General rules according to IEC 60364 312.2

The Three Earthing Systems


1.
2.
3.

1st letter
Situation of supply
T = Direct connection of
Transformer Neutral with the earth
I = Neutral unearthed or
Impedance-earthed

Division - Name - Date - Language

T
T
I

T
N
T

2nd letter
Situation of installation frames
T = Exposed frames directly earthed
N = Frames connected to the supply
point which is earthed,
either by a separate Protective Earth
conductor (S).
Or combined with the Neutral (C)

14

Low Voltage Earthing Systems

Earthing system technique


TT system
E36886

Definition
The neutral point of the LV
transformer is directly
connected to an earth
electrode

L1
L2
L3
N

Rn

Division - Name - Date - Language

16

Low Voltage Earthing Systems

Earthing system technique


TT system
E36886

Definition
The neutral point of the LV
transformer is directly
connected to an earth
electrode
The exposed conductive
parts of the installation are
connected to an electrically
separate earth electrode

L1
L2
L3
N

PE
Rn

Division - Name - Date - Language

Ru

17

System earthing
arrangements

Earth electrode

"Deep" earth
the earth does not act as an insulator

Equivalent electrical circuit


"Deep" earth is equipotential in nature
whatever the distance!
11
1000 km

"Deep" earth

15

10

10

Division - Name - Date - Language

E92453

E92452

"Deep" earth

18

Earth electrode

System earthing
arrangements

Well designed network


At A
A

L1
L2
L3
N
PE

I1 + I2 + I3 + IN = IPE
Well designed network

IPE = 0

IPE = 0

I1 + I2 + I3 + IN = 0

Current in the neutral


does not depend on current IPE
equal to unbalanced load
currents and/or 3rd order
harmonics (3 k)
E92457

Division - Name - Date - Language

IN = Iunbalance + I3 k

19

Earth electrode

System earthing
arrangements

Faulty distribution system

L1
L2
L3
N
PE

Faulty distribution system

IPE 0

I1 + I2 + I3 + IN 0

IPE 0

Current in the neutral


does not depend on current IPE
equal to unbalanced load

currents and/or 3rd order


harmonics (3 k)

E94409

IN = Iunbalance + I3 k

Measurement of current IPE can be used


for protection of persons (values depend on the earthing arrangement)
protection against fire hazards

However, it is necessary to detect the "true" IPE

Division - Name - Date - Language

20

TT system

System earthing
arrangements

Earth-fault study
Value of fault current:
Uo = 230 V

L1
L2
L3
N

Id = Uo / (Rn + Ru)
= 230 / (10 + 10)
= 11.5 A

400 V/230 V

Ud = Ru x If
= 10 x 11.5
Exposed
conductive
part

Id = 11,5 A

Ud =
115 V
Load

E95420

Rn
10

Division - Name - Date - Language

= 115 V > UL = 50 V
The fault current generates
a dangerous touch voltage
The SCPD is usually not suitable
for eliminating this type of fault

Ru
10

21

TT system

System earthing
arrangements

Earth-fault study
Uo = 230 V

400/230 V

SCPD
25 A

Load

E95421

Division - Name - Date - Language

Ru
10

L1
L2
L3
N

In = 5A
Exposed
conductive
part

Rn
10

Solution
The SCPD is usually not
suitable for this type of fault
(ST setting at 25 A)
A residual current device
specially designed for the
protection of persons
Tripping conditions:
Max touch voltage < Safety curve
Ru x In < UL
(In is the setting of RCD)
In = UL / Ru
= 50 /10
=5A

22

SEAs and devices

Earth-leakage protection
RCD technologies
electromechanical
no auxiliary power required
electronic
integrated in SCPD
(no auxiliary power required)
separate from the SCPD
auxiliary supply required
RCDs are immune
to nuisance tripping
to DC currents
(class A as defined by IEC 755)

Division - Name - Date - Language

24

Low Voltage Earthing Systems

Associated switchgear in TT

RCD
electromechanical
own current

Division - Name - Date - Language

E37522

Earth leakage protection

25

Low Voltage Earthing Systems

Associated switchgear in TT

RCD
electromechanical
own current
electronic
integrated in the voltageoperated short-circuit protection
device

Division - Name - Date - Language

E37522

Earth leakage protection

26

Low Voltage Earthing Systems

Associated switchgear in TT

RCD technologies
electromechanical
own current
electronic
integrated in the voltageoperated short-circuit protection
device
separate from the short-circuit
protection device
auxiliary supply

Division - Name - Date - Language

E37522

Earth leakage protection

27

Devices for the TT system

SEAs and devices

Operating principle

Tripping

Operating principle of residual


current devices requiring no
auxiliary supply (electronic)
Detection
Measurement

No aux. power
required

Detectio
n

Earth-leakage
relay

E37508

Division - Name - Date - Language

Tripping

Measurement

28

System earthing
arrangements

Main features of the TT system


Protection of persons:
fault current is dangerous
fault current is too weak to trigger the short-circuit protection devices
protection must be practically instantaneous
It is provided by a specially designed RCD device
Fire protection:
fault current is limited
"naturally" managed by RCDs for the protection of persons
Continuity of service:
ensured by discrimination between the RCDs

Division - Name - Date - Language

35

TN system

System earthing
arrangements

Definition

E95416

L1
L2
L3
N
PE

Division - Name - Date - Language

The neutral point of the LV


transformer is directly connected
to an earth electrode
The exposed conductive parts
of the installation are connected
by the PE to the same earth
electrode

Rn

37

TN-S system

System earthing
arrangements

Definition (cont.)

E95417

L1
L2
L3
N
PE

Division - Name - Date - Language

The PE and neutral conductor


are separate

Rn

38

TN-C system

System earthing
arrangements

Definition (cont.)

E95423

L1
L2
L3
PEN

Division - Name - Date - Language

A common conductor is used


for both the PE and the neutral
conductors (PEN)

Rn

39

System earthing
arrangements

TN-C-S system
Definition (cont.)
In this TN sub-system:
L1
L2
L3
PEN

L1
L2
L3
N
PE

the upstream part is TN-C

(with PEN)
the downstream part is TN-S

(with PE and N)

E95424

Note. A TN-S system may not be


used upstream of a TN-C system

Rn

Division - Name - Date - Language

40

System earthing
arrangements

TN system
Earth-fault study

Uo = 230 V

400 V/230 V

Id

The fault current is equal to a Ph/N shortcircuit

Uc

E95425

Fault

Division - Name - Date - Language

=0.025 -mm2/m for Cu.


RPE= RPH=0.025 x 50/35 = 32.14 m
Id = 230/(2 x 0.3214) = 3578 A.

Exposed
conductive
part

Rn

L1
L2
L3
N
PE

Consider the PH & PE Conductor are


Copper, 50 m Long with a X-section of 35
mm2. The Fault Current
Id =U0/(RPE +RPH)
RPE= RPH=. L/S

This Fault Current will generate a Touch


Voltage
Uc = RPE x Id = 3578 x 0.03214 = 115 V.
Since the fault current depends on the
Length of the Lines, it is necessary to check
that the Fault Current is more than the
Protection Operating Threshold of the CB i.e Id
> Ia

41

System earthing
arrangements

TN system

The Value of the fault current is:


Id = 0.8.Uo. SPH
.(1 + m).L

Earth-fault study (cont.)


Uo = 230 V

400 V/230 V

L1
L2
L3
N
PE

where m=Sph/Spe
L=Length of the Cond.
Lmax = 0.8Uo. SPH
.(1 + m).Ia

Id

If the length of the conductor is


greater than Lmax., it is necessary
to;
Reduce Ia.

Exposed
conductive
part

Uc

E95425

Fault

Increase Spe.
Install an RCD.

Rn

Division - Name - Date - Language

42

TN system

System earthing
arrangements

Implementation (cont.)
TN-C
Uo = 230 V

400 V/230 V

Exposed
conductive
part

PEN = protective conductor


and neutral conductor

Protection of the PEN


SPEN = SPH
the PEN must not be
disconnected

The exposed conductive parts


of the substation, the LV neutral
and the exposed conductive
parts of the loads are connected
to the same earth electrode

E95427

Load

L1
L2
L3
PE N

Division - Name - Date - Language

44

Devices for the TN-S system

SEAs and devices

Protection by short-circuit protection devices


Protection:
for a given cross-section
and material (e.g. copper or
aluminium), the fault
current Id depends on the length
of the conductors

E95442

t < 0.4 s

Id

circuit breaker protection:

setting of magnetic relay / ST

E95449

< 30 ms

Division - Name - Date - Language

Im

Id

46

SEAs and devices

Devices for the TN-S system


Protection by short-circuit protection devices
If the conditions for correct protection are not met

Circuit breaker
low setting of magnetic relay/ST
or
installation of a standard RCD
or
increase the conductor cross-section

Division - Name - Date - Language

48

SEAs and devices

Main features
TN-S system

E37542

Protection of persons:
fault current is dangerous
fault current is usually high enough to trip the SCPDs
tripping must be practically instantaneous
It is ensured by the magnetic settings on the SCPDs
if the fault current is not high enough, RCDs may be used to ensure
protection
Fire protection:
fault current is high
it must be managed by additional RCDs
Continuity of service:
ensured by discrimination between the short-circuit protection devices
and among RCDs
Division - Name - Date - Language

53

SEAs and devices

Main features
TN-C

E37544

Protection of persons:
fault current is dangerous
fault current is usually high enough to be tripped by the SCPDs
tripping must be practically instantaneous = same as TN-S
It is ensured by the magnetic settings on the SCPDs
if the fault current is not high enough, the installation must be resized
Fire protection:
cannot be provided (TN-C not allowed where there is a risk of fire)
Continuity of service:
ensured by discrimination between the SCPDs = same as TN-S

Division - Name - Date - Language

54

IT system

System earthing
arrangements

Definition

The exposed conductive parts


of the loads are connected
by the PE conductor
to a common earth electrode

E95429

L1
L2
L3
N
PE

The Neutral point of the LV


transformer is Isolated, not
connected to an earth electrode

Division - Name - Date - Language

56

IT system

System earthing
arrangements

Definition (cont.)

L1
L2
L3
N
PE

The exposed conductive parts


of the loads are connected
by the PE conductor
to a common earth electrode
or to separate earth electrodes

PE

E95430

PE

The Neutral point of the LV


transformer is Isolated and not
connected
to an earth
electrode

Division - Name - Date - Language

57

System earthing
arrangements

IT system
Earth-fault study

L1
L2
L3

Under Normal operation, the


System is earthed by its System
Leakage Impedance.

E95431

PE

Division - Name - Date - Language

58

System earthing
arrangements

IT system
Earth-fault study (cont.)
System leakage impedance
L1
L2
L3
PE

If=U/Zt =230/3500 =0.065 A


Uc=10 x0.065= 0.6V
Uc< UL(50V)
The touch voltage is not

dangerous
There is no risk of fire

E95432

The fault does not cause


tripping but it must be indicated

Division - Name - Date - Language

59

System earthing
arrangements

IT system
Signalling the first fault
Detection principle:
emission of a specific zero

sequence signal

E95433

L1
L2
L3
PE

Division - Name - Date - Language

60

System earthing
arrangements

IT system
Signalling the first fault (cont.)

Fault-clearance principle:
detection by toroid
and indication of the faulty
outgoer

E95434

L1
L2
L3
PE

Detection principle:
emission of a specific zero
sequence signal

Division - Name - Date - Language

61

Devices for the IT system

SEAs and devices

IMD 1st fault


I inj

L1
L2
L3
N
PE

I inj
I inj

RI

I inj

Principle
injection of current
tracking generator
measurement of IR
IMD:(Insulation Monitoring
Device)
DC current: direct measurement
of IR
AC current: calculation of IR

e
I inj

E95435

(IR) Insulation Resistance

Division - Name - Date - Language

62

SEAs and devices

Devices for the IT system


IMD 1st fault (cont.)
L1
L2
L3
N

Principle of the FTD (*)


detection of fault current
Type of FTD (*):
portable
fixed

E95436

PE

(*) Fault Tracking Device

Division - Name - Date - Language

63

SEAs and devices

Devices for the IT system


IMD & FTD
Merlin Gerin range
IMD (*)

FTD (**)

(*) Insulation Monitoring Device


(**) Fault Tracking Device

Division - Name - Date - Language

64

Protection plan for second fault

SEAs and devices

IT system with interconnected exposed conductive parts (ECP)


Study of the 2nd earth fault
L1
L2
L3
N
PE
Id1

Id2

The SCPD protection trips


protection is ensured by
the same circuit breaker
as for TN-S, mais
4P 4t is compulsory
Check the loop impedance

E95437

Merlin Gerin circuit breakers


are appropriate for protection
in IT systems

Division - Name - Date - Language

66

SEAs and devices

Main characteristics of the IT system


Protection of persons:
the insulation fault is not dangerous

Protection is ensured by the IT system itself, however


a maintenance strategy is required
A second fault is dangerous and protection must be ensured
by the magnetic setting of the SCPD s or the RCDs
Fire protection: the fault current is close to zero
Continuity of service is total

Division - Name - Date - Language

69

Fire protection

Standard IEC 60364

I E C 6 0 3 6 4

E94550

Standard IEC 60364, section 3-32, defines premises presenting


a risk of fire (BE2) or explosion (BE3)
Standard IEC 60364, section 4-48, deals with premises where
there is a risk of fire
imposes use of a 500 mA RCD device
recommends use of a TT or IT system for the electrical installation
on such premises
prohibits use of a TN-C system

In TT, IT and TN-S systems, a 300 mA RCD eliminates


the risk of fire

Division - Name - Date - Language

72

Selection of a system earthing arrangement


6 selection criteria
Protection of persons
Protection of equipment
Continuity of the power supply
Effects of disturbances
Easy implementation
Economic analysis

Division - Name - Date - Language

73

System earthing
arrangements

Selection of a system earthing arrangement


Conclusion
Facility managers need a dependable electrical distribution
IEC 364 offers solutions which:

E37521

optimally protect persons (systems, RCDs, neutral switching, etc.)


minimise the risk of fire (TT, IT systems, RCDs)
protect property by limiting leakage/fault currents (IT, TT, TN-S with

RCDs)
Mixing of system earthing arrangements is the means to provide
optimum solutions to the needs of operators

IEC 364 means a dependable, high-performance installation

Division - Name - Date - Language

74