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BUILDING MAINTENANCE

PROBLEMS & SOLUTIONS

By

M. C. Paliwal
NITTTR Bhopal

Q.

What is the similarity ?

Objectives:
1. Develop awareness about the health
problems
of R.C.C. components of buildings
2. Classify various causes of deterioration
3. Explain various types of deterioration
4. Suggest preventive measures for long life of
buildings.

Q. Why there is Need for Building


Maintenance?
To strengthen its weaker members &
lengthen its life.

Q. Classify the types of Defects in building:


- Macro defects: Visible from naked eye
-Micro defects: Not visible from naked eye

Q. What are the causes for


deterioration of RCC buildings?
1. Poor structural design and
specifications
2. Poor quality of construction
3. Poor maintenance of buildings
4. Environmental problems and aging
effects
5. Indiscriminate additions & alterations
6. Natural & manmade calamity

1.Poor structural design & specifications


-Densely spaced steel bars
-Segregated concrete at beam column
junction
-Honey combing of concrete

2.Poor construction & overloading


with illegal mezzanine floors

Poor Construction, Poor quality of


materials used & poor supervision.

-Poor construction & neglected


maintenance

Check for materials like cement,sand


admixtures etc.
-Proper mixing and batching of
materials
c

Silt & clay in


sand

Excess water in
mortar

3.Poor maintenance
-Leaking roof
-Spalling of Concrete due to corrosion

-Preventing Vegetative growth on Buildings

- Collapse during Extension work


- Collapse during Modification,Renovation

4- Environmental Conditions around the


Buildings,
Chemicals like carbon-dioxide, chlorides,
nitrous oxides, moisture and sulphates
5- Overloading of structure or Weakening its
structural members due to alteration/
renovation.

-Weakening the Structure by Chipping of


Concrete and Removing Reinforcement Steel
-Weakening the Structure in Stilt Portion
(Parking Area) of the building

.
-Proper supporting,propping for load
carrying members

-Chipping of defective or deteriorated


concrete

Proper packing of mortar between RCC


beams,columns and brick masonry

Repairs by guniting/jacketing
with concrete or treated with
cement or polymer concrete

Roughened base coat of


plaster for better mechanical
bond with the finishing coat.

Curing by ponding water on


horizontal surface
Curing by spraying water at regular
intervals on vertical surface

To reduce cost :Check the locations where repairs are


necessary and where repairs need not be done.
Whole plaster is replaced.

Removal of rust before


repair using guniting

Rusting of steel in RCC column on ground


floor resulting in spalling of concrete

Cracks,crevics ,joints and junctions should be


properly packed before repairs.

Cracks developed due to improper curing.

Failure due to
modification

Building before repairs and after repairs

Corrosion of steel & spalling of concrete


due to ingress of moisture

-Cantilever canopy showing porous


honeycombed concrete
-Deteriorated cantilever balcony slabs

Spalled concrete due to corrosion of steel


by leakage

- Cracks over superficially repaired surface


- Corrosion of steel in RCC beam

5.Indiscriminate Addition & Alterations in


Buildings
Some DOS & DONTS

Alterations in Window balcony

Additions to window canopy

Conversion of balcony into dressing room

Conversion of balcony into a bath room

Adding waterfall & potted plants on balcony

Before

After

Overloading the RCC building by installing


large tanks

Careless modification causing damage


to structure

Damaging RCC beam to conceal electric


conduits & adding load by new floor tiles

Chamfering RCC columns in stilt area to


avoid damage to cars

Removing RCC beams & columns


between two flats

Removing RCC beam and part of RCC slab &


Introducing additional staircase load to
interconnect two flats

Introducing additional load on RCC slab &


beam by relocating partition wall

6.Natural calamities of building failure


-Earthquake
-Floods
-Terrorist attack
-Bomb blast

Conclusion: How to increase life of any building?

To prevent deterioration of R.C.C. buildings prop


measures are required in following steps.
1.Proper structural design and specifications
2.Proper Construction practices
3.Timely Preventive Maintenance
4.Check indiscriminate additions & alterations
5.Safety for natural & manmade calamity

Treat the old building as hospitalised human


being.
-Engineers/Consultants are like Physicians.
-Contractors are like surgeons.
-Occupants are like relatives of the
building.
So timely action is very important for
the long life of buildings.