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Networking Basics

2009, Velocis Systems

How a LAN Is Built

2009, Velocis Systems

Local-Area NetworkLAN
What is a LAN?
A collection of computers, printers, and other
devices that can communicate with each other
in a small area (< ~ 3000 m)

What are the components?


Computers, operating system (OS),
network interface card (NIC), and hubs

How is a LAN controlled?


ProtocolsFormal descriptions of sets of
rules and conventions that govern how
devices on a network exchange information
Networking Fundamentals

2009, Velocis Systems

1-3

Local-Area Networks
LANs are designed to:
Operate within a limited geographic area
Allow multi-access to high-bandwidth media
Control the network privately under local
administration
Provide full-time connectivity to local services
Connect physically adjacent devices

Networking Fundamentals

2009, Velocis Systems

1-4

Network Operating System (OS)

Software that allows


communicating and
sharing of data and
network resources
Examples:
Win 2000
NetWare

PC or Workstation
Loaded with NOS

Win NT

Networking Fundamentals

2009, Velocis Systems

1-5

Network Interface Card


Amplifies electronic signals
Packages data for
transmission
Physically connects
computer to
transmission
media (cable)

PC or Workstation
Loaded with NOS

Connector Port

Network Interface
Card (NIC)
Networking Fundamentals

2009, Velocis Systems

1-6

1990sGlobal Internetworking

19921 major backbone, 3,000 networks, 200K computers


1995Multiple backbones, hundreds of regional nets, tens of thousands
of LANs, millions of hosts, tens of millions of users

Doubling every year!


Networking Fundamentals

2009, Velocis Systems

1-7

The OSI Model


OSI Layer is meant for Networking
manufacturers and developers to
provide them a standard based on which
they can make their products.
All OSI Layers are independent from
each other, which makes introducing
changes easier as no other layers are
effected.
Ease of Troubleshooting.
Networking Fundamentals

2009, Velocis Systems

1-8

The Layered Model

2009, Velocis Systems

Why a Layered Network Model?


7

Application

Presentation

Session

Transport

Network

Data Link

Physical

Networking Fundamentals

Reduces complexity (one big


problem to seven smaller
ones)
Facilitates modular
engineering
Assures interoperable
technology
Accelerates evolution
Simplifies teaching and
learning

2009, Velocis Systems

1-10

Devices Function at Layers

NIC Card

Networking Fundamentals

Application

Presentation

Session

Transport

Network

Data Link

Physical

Hub

2009, Velocis Systems

1-11

Host Layers
7

Application

Presentation

Session

Transport
Network

Data Link

Physical

Networking Fundamentals

Host layers: Provide


accurate data delivery
between computers

2009, Velocis Systems

1-12

Media Layers
7

Application

Presentation

Session

4
Transport
3

Network

Data Link

Physical

Networking Fundamentals

}
}

Host layers: Provide


accurate data delivery
between computers

Media layers: Control


physical delivery of messages
over the network

2009, Velocis Systems

1-13

Layer Functions
7

Networking Fundamentals

Application

Provides network services to


application processes (such as
electronic mail, file transfer, and
terminal emulation)

2009, Velocis Systems

1-14

Layer Functions
7

Application

Network services to applications

Presentation

Data representation
Ensures data is readable by
receiving system
Format of data
Data structures

Networking Fundamentals

2009, Velocis Systems

1-15

Layer Functions
7

Application

Network services to applications

Presentation

Data representation

Session

Networking Fundamentals

Inter-host communication
Establishes, manages, and
terminates sessions between
applications

2009, Velocis Systems

1-16

Layer Functions
7

Application

Network services to applications

Presentation

Data representation

Session

Transport

Inter-host communication
End-to-end connection reliability
Concerned with data transport
issues between hosts
Data transport reliability
Establishes, maintains, and
terminates virtual circuits
Fault detection and recovery
Information flow control

Networking Fundamentals

2009, Velocis Systems

1-17

Layer Functions
7

Application

Network services to applications

Presentation

Data representation

Session

Transport

Network

Inter-host communication
End-to-end connection reliability
Addresses and best path
Provides connectivity and path
selection between two end
systems
Domain of routing

Networking Fundamentals

2009, Velocis Systems

1-18

Layer Functions
7

Application

Network services to applications

Presentation

Data representation

Session

Transport

Network

Addresses and best path

Data Link

Access to media

Inter-host communication
End-to-end connection reliability

Physical addressing, network


topology, error notification

Networking Fundamentals

2009, Velocis Systems

1-19

Layer Functions
7

Application

Network services to applications

Presentation

Data representation

Session

Transport

Network

Addresses and best path

Data Link

Access to media

Physical

Binary transmission
Wires, connectors, voltages,
data rates

Networking Fundamentals

Inter-host communication
End-to-end connection reliability

2009, Velocis Systems

1-20

Peer-to-Peer Communications
Host A

Host B

Application

Application

Presentation

Presentation

Session

Session

Transport

Segments

Transport

Network

Packets

Network

Data Link

Frames

Data Link

Physical

Bits

Physical

Networking Fundamentals

2009, Velocis Systems

1-21

Application Layer
This is where users communicate to the
computer.
This is where communication between
two users are established.
This is a point where user or application
interfaces with the protocols to gain
access to the network.
Examples are WWW, Telnet, FTP, TFTP,
E-mail, DNS
Networking Fundamentals

2009, Velocis Systems

1-22

Presentation Layer

Tasks like Translation, Encryption,


decryption, compression, decompression are
associated with this layer.
It is mainly responsible for how the data is to
be presented to the Application Layer.
Examples are JPEG, MIDI, MPEG etc.

Networking Fundamentals

2009, Velocis Systems

1-23

Session Layer

Session Establishment
Establishes a session between two devices
before actual transmission of data.
Dialog Control
Simplex
Half Duplex
Full Duplex

Networking Fundamentals

2009, Velocis Systems

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Session Layer
Simplex
Data travels only one way.
Radio transmission is the best example of this.
Half Duplex
Both way but one at a time. By default all LAN Cards
(NICs) work on Half Duplex.
Full Duplex
Both way at the same time.

Networking Fundamentals

2009, Velocis Systems

1-25

Transport Layer

Networking Fundamentals

Segments upper-layer applications (Multiplexing)


Establishes an end-to-end connection
Sends segments from one end host to another
Optionally, ensures data reliability

2009, Velocis Systems

1-26

Transport Layer
Transport Layer never actually transports the data
but only prepares for transporting.
Uses Socket to define the services running on a
particular node, the data is associated with.
Responsible for the following :
Segmentation
End-to-end Communication
Flow Control
Error Control
Multiplexing of Applications
TCP, UDP work at this layer
Networking Fundamentals

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Socket
Socket is a software component and points to a particular service
running on a particular node.
Structure of a socket
IP Address + Port Address
Each service has a unique Port address
Max. Port Addresses can be 65,536
Port address 1-1023 is reserved for specific Services like
WWW

80

FTP

21

SMTP

25

Port Addresses are reserved for standardization purpose .


Networking Fundamentals

2009, Velocis Systems

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Port Numbers

Application
Layer

Transport
Layer
Networking Fundamentals

F
T
P

T
E
L
N
E
T

S
M
T
P

D
N
S

T
F
T
P

S
N
M
P

R
I
P

21

23

25

53

69

161

520

TCP

UDP

Port
Numbers

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1-29

Segmentation

This is a mechanism wherein the data is divided into


multiple segments and sent over the network.
By doing this different segments can use different links
for travelling across the network.
If one segment is lost the only segment is required to be
re-sent and not the entire data.
Once all segments reach to the destination the received
segments have to be sequenced back, which is also
done at this layer.
Networking Fundamentals

2009, Velocis Systems

1-30

Flow Control
Used while connection oriented communication
It helps to have a control on over flow of Buffer.
Advantages are:
The segments delivered are acknowledged if received
Any segment not acknowledged are retransmitted
segments are sequenced back upon their arrival
Congestion, Overloading and data loss are avoided
To achieve all this it uses the technique of Sliding
window or Windowing
Networking Fundamentals

2009, Velocis Systems

1-31

Transport Layer

Establishes Connection

Sender

Receiver

Synchronize
Negotiate Connection
Synchronize
Acknowledge

Connection Established
Data Transfer
(Send Segments)

Networking Fundamentals

2009, Velocis Systems

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End-to-End Communication

Connection Less Transmission


UDP is used
Not reliable
Faster

Connection Oriented Transmission


TCP is used
Reliable
Slower

Networking Fundamentals

2009, Velocis Systems

1-33

Connection Oriented Protocol


These protocols relies on Acknowledgement.
Positive acknowledgement means data has
been received.
Negative acknowledgement means data is
lost no further data is sent till positive
acknowledgement is received.
It is slow but Reliable.
Eg. TCP and SPX
Networking Fundamentals

2009, Velocis Systems

1-34

Transport Layer

Reliability with Windowing


Send 1
Sender

Window Size = 1
Receive 1
Ack 2
Receive 2
Ack 3

Send 2

Receiver

Window Size = 3

Sender

Send 1
Send 2
Send 3

Receive 1
Receive 2
Receive 3
Ack 4

Receiver

Send 4

Networking Fundamentals

2009, Velocis Systems

1-35

Transport Layer

An Acknowledgement Technique

Sender

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Receiver

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Send 1
Send 2
Send 3
Ack 4
Send 4
Send 5
Send 6
Ack 5
Send 5
Networking Fundamentals

Ack 7
2009, Velocis Systems

1-36

Connection Less Protocol

They do not provide acknowledgement


neither sequence numbers.
It is faster but not reliable
Eg. UDP
Networking Fundamentals

2009, Velocis Systems

1-37

Network Layer

It is responsible for communicating Networks


It recognizes Networks with the help of Network Addresses
Network Address is a logical address like IP Address
It is common for a group of computers
It works only with Network IDs and has got nothing to do with host
Ids.
Path determination or Routing is performed at this layer.
Router works at this layer.

Networking Fundamentals

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1-38

Network Layer: Path Determination

Which
Which Path?
Path?

Layer 3 functions to find the best


path through the internetwork
Networking Fundamentals

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1-39

Network Layer: Communicate Path

2
4

9
6

8
10

11

Addresses represent the path of media


connections

Networking Fundamentals

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1-40

Protocol Addressing Variations


General
Example

Network

Node

TCP/IP
Example

Network

Host

10.

8.2.48

Novell IPX
Example

Network

Networking Fundamentals

1aceb0b.

(Mask 255.0.0.0)

Node
0000.0c00.6e25
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Network Layer
Protocol Operations
X

C
C
A
A

Each router provides its services to support


upper layer functions

Networking Fundamentals

2009, Velocis Systems

1-42

Routed Versus Routing Protocol


Routed protocol
used between
routers to direct
user traffic
Examples: IP, IPX,
AppleTalk
Routing protocol
used only between
routers to maintain
routing tables
Examples: RIP, IGRP, OSPF
Networking Fundamentals

2009, Velocis Systems

1-43

Static Versus Dynamic Routes


Static Route
Uses a protocol route that a network
administrator enters into the router

Dynamic Route
Uses a route that a network protocol
adjusts automatically for topology or
traffic changes

Networking Fundamentals

2009, Velocis Systems

1-44

Static Route Example

A
A

Point-to-point or
circuit-switched
connection

Only a single network


connection with no need
for routing updates

Fixed route to address reflects


administrators knowledge
Networking Fundamentals

B
B
Stub network

2009, Velocis Systems

1-45

Adapting to Topology Change

A
A

B
B

D
D

C
C

Can an alternate route substitute


for a failed route?
Networking Fundamentals

2009, Velocis Systems

1-46

Adapting to Topology Change

A
A

B
B

X
D
D

Networking Fundamentals

C
C

2009, Velocis Systems

1-47

Adapting to Topology Change

A
A

B
B

X
D
D

C
C

Can an alternate route substitute


for a failed route?
YesWith
dynamic routing enabled
Yes
Networking Fundamentals

2009, Velocis Systems

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Data Link Layer


It uniquely identifies each device in the Network.
It translates data from Network Layer into bits for the
Physical layer to transmit.
It formats the messages into Data Frames
Adds a customized header containing Source and
Destination hardware address
This layer works with Frames
This layer is logically divided in two sub-layers:
LLC (Logical Link Control)
MAC (Media Access Control)
Networking Fundamentals

2009, Velocis Systems

1-49

DATA LINK LAYER

FUNCTIONS OF ETHERNET

1)

Arbitration: CSMA/CD algorithm

2)

Addressing: 6 byte-long MAC address

3)

Error detection: FCS in Ethernet trailer

4)

Identify the type of packet inside the frame

Networking Fundamentals

2009, Velocis Systems

1-50

Physical Layer

Electrical and Mechanical settings are provided at this


layer.

Transmits data in the form of bits.

This layer communicates directly with actual


communication media.

At this layer DCE & DTE are identified


DCE (Data Circuit-Terminating Equipment)
Located at Service Providers side
DTE (Data Terminal Equipment)
The attached device at customer Place
HUBs & REPEATERS are working at this layer.

Networking Fundamentals

Max. troubleshooting occurs at this layer.


2009, Velocis Systems

1-51

DOD MODEL

2009, Velocis Systems

The DoD

Model

The Process / Application Layer


The Host-to-Host Layer
The Internet Layer
The Network Access Layer

Networking Fundamentals

2009, Velocis Systems

1-53

The DoD & OSI


DoD Model

OSI Model
Application

Application

Presentation
Session

Host-to-Host
Internet

Transport
Network
Data Link

Network
Access
Networking Fundamentals

Physical
2009, Velocis Systems

1-54

Ethernet

2009, Velocis Systems

Introduction
Ethernet is a methodology for accessing a media
It allows all hosts on a network to share the same
bandwidth of a link.
It is popular because :
It is easy to implement & Troubleshoot
It is easy to add new technologies like Fast Ethernet
and Gigabit Ethernet to existing infrastructure.
Ethernet uses Data Link Layer and Physical Layer
Specification
It uses something called
Networking Fundamentals

CSMA/CD
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1-56

Ethernet Operation
A

Networking Fundamentals

2009, Velocis Systems

1-57

Ethernet Operation
A

Application
Presentation
Session
Transport
Network
Data Link
Physical

Networking Fundamentals

2009, Velocis Systems

1-58

Ethernet Operation
A

Application
Presentation
Session
Transport
Network
Data Link
Physical

Networking Fundamentals

B and C

Application
Presentation
Session
Transport
Network
Data Link
Physical

2009, Velocis Systems

1-59

Ethernet LANs:
How do they work?
Multiple workstations
are connected to a
segment
Each station has to take
turns sending traffic
All stations listen to all
traffic on their segment
Stations can only send
data (Ethernet Frames)
when no one else is
sending
Networking Fundamentals

2009, Velocis Systems

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Ethernet LANs:
MAC Addresses
0000.0c12.3456

0000.1018.321a

Networking Fundamentals

0000.0c12.1111

Every workstation has


a Network Interface
Card (NIC)
Every NIC has a unique
MAC address
Stations use MAC
addresses to send
Ethernet Frames to a
specific station

2009, Velocis Systems

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Ethernet LANs:
Unicast Frames
0000.0c12.3456

Frame
To: 0000.0c12.3456

0000.1018.321a

Networking Fundamentals

0000.0c12.1111

Ethernet frames contain


the MAC address of the
station that the frame
was sent to
These are called
unicast frames
All stations receive the
Ethernet frame, but
ignore the frames that
are not addressed to
their MAC address
2009, Velocis Systems

1-62

Ethernet LANs:
Broadcast Frames
0000.0c12.3456

Frame
To: FFFF.FFFF.FFFF

0000.1018.321a

Networking Fundamentals

Some Ethernet frames


are sent to all stations
These are called
broadcast frames
All stations process
this frame

0000.0c12.1111

2009, Velocis Systems

1-63

Ethernet LANs:
Broadcast Frames
0000.0c12.3456

Frame
To: FFFF.FFFF.FFFF

0000.1018.321a

Networking Fundamentals

Some Ethernet frames


are sent to all stations
These are called
broadcast frames
All stations process
this frame

0000.0c12.1111

2009, Velocis Systems

1-64

Ethernet Collisions
Collision!
Packe
Frame Packe
Frame t
t

Frame

Packet

Frame

Packet

Sometimes stations
transmit
simultaneously
Two frames on the
same segment collide
Collisions require
each station to wait
and resend

Networking Fundamentals

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Ethernet Reliability
A

Figure 1

Figure 2

Collision
Networking Fundamentals

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Ethernet Reliability
A

Collision

JAM

Networking Fundamentals

JAM

JAM

JAM

JAM

JAM

2009, Velocis Systems

1-67

Ethernet Reliability
A

Collision

JAM

JAM

JAM

JAM

JAM

JAM

Carrier sense multiple access with


collision detection (CSMA/CD)
Networking Fundamentals

2009, Velocis Systems

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CSMA/CD
CSMA/CD stands for Carrier Sense Multiple Access /
Collision Detect.
It is used by all NICs in Ethernet Networking
In this method all NICs first sense whether the cable
is free or not.
If it is free the request is sent otherwise it waits.
Networking Fundamentals

2009, Velocis Systems

1-69

Half Duplex Ethernet

It is defined in 802.3 Ethernet specifications


It uses only one wire pair for signals running in
both direction.
CSMA/CD is used to prevent collision.
Half Duplex typically 10base T is 50-60 % efficient.
(In CISCO views)
In a large 10 base T network you only get 3 to 4
MBPS at most.

Networking Fundamentals

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Full Duplex
Full Duplex Ethernet uses two pairs
of wires.
There is no collision in Full Duplex
Full Duplex is suppose to offer
100% efficiency in both direction
Means you can get 20 MBPS in 10
MBPS or 200 MBPS in Fast Ethernet
running Full Duplex.
Networking Fundamentals

2009, Velocis Systems

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Ethernet Addressing
Ethernet Addressing uses MAC Address
MAC addresses are burned on every NIC
It is a 48-bit address
It is written in the same format even if different
LAN Technologies are used.
24 bits
24 bits

Organizationally
Unique Identifier (OUI)
(Assigned by IEEE)

Vender Assigned

Ethernet Addressing using MAC Addresses


Networking Fundamentals

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Ethernet and IEEE 802.3

Benefits and background


Ethernet is the most popular physical layer LAN technology because
it strikes a good balance between speed, cost, and ease of
installation
Supports virtually all network protocols
Xerox initiated, then joined by DEC & Intel in 1980

Revisions of Ethernet specification


Fast Ethernet raises speed from 10 Mbps to 100 Mbps
Gigabit Ethernet is an extension of IEEE 802.3 which increases
speeds to 1000 Mbps, or 1 Gbps

Networking Fundamentals

2009, Velocis Systems

1-73

LAN FUNDAMENTALS

Ethernet
It is a LAN protocol. Given by Xerox in early 1970s. Three
companies modified it as E (II)
DEC, Intel & Xerox (DIX). IEEE made it standard as 802.3
Header of Ethernet
8bytes 6byts 6byts 2 byts variable 4byts
Flag

Networking Fundamentals

DA

SA

TYPE

DATA

FCS

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MAC SUB-LAYER
MAC Layer - 802.3
# Bytes

Preamble Dest add Source add

0000.0C
IEEE assigned

xx.xxxx
Vendor
assigned

2
Length

Variable
Data

4
FCS

Ethernet II
uses Type
here and
does not use
802.2.

MAC Address
Networking Fundamentals

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Preamble
It allows the receiving devices to lock
the incoming bit stream.
The Peamble is used to indicate to the
receiving station that the data portion
of the message will follow.

Networking Fundamentals

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Destination Address (DA)

DA is used by receiving stations to


determine if an incoming packet is
addressed to a particular node.

Networking Fundamentals

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1-77

Source Address (SA)

SA is a 48 bit MAC Address supplied


by the transmitting device.
Broadcast and Multicast address
formats are illegal within the SA
fields.

Networking Fundamentals

2009, Velocis Systems

1-78

Length or Type Field

802.3 uses length field where as Ethernet


frame uses type field to identify the
network layer protocol.
802.2 can identify upper-layer protocol and
must be used with 802.3 frame.

Networking Fundamentals

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Data

This is the packet sent down to the


Data Link Layer from the Network
layer.
The size can vary from 46-1500 bytes.

Networking Fundamentals

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1-80

Frame Check Sequence (FCS)

FCS is a field at the end of the frame


that is used to store the cyclic
redundancy check.

Networking Fundamentals

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1-81

ETHERNET
CABLING

2009, Velocis Systems

Network Cabling
Media connecting network
components
NIC cards take turns transmitting on the
cable

Three primary types of cabling


Twisted-pair (or copper)
Coaxial cable
Fiber-optic cable
Networking Fundamentals

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Twisted-Pair (UTP and STP)


STP only:
Shielded Insulation
to Reduce EMI

Twisted-Pair
Outer Jacket

Speed and throughput:

10/100 Mbps

Relative cost:

Least costly

Color-Coded
Plastic Insulation

RJ-45
Connector

Media and connector size: Small


Maximum cable length:
Networking Fundamentals

100 m
2009, Velocis Systems

1-84

Coaxial Cable
OuterJacket

Braided Copper Shielding


Plastic Insulation
Copper Conductor

BNC Connector

Speed and throughput:

10/100 Mbps

Relative cost:

More than UTP, but still low

Media and connector size:

Medium

Maximum cable length:

200/500 m

Networking Fundamentals

2009, Velocis Systems

1-85

UPPER LAYER
PROTOCOLS

2009, Velocis Systems

TCP/IP Protocol
The Transmission Control Protocol/Internet
Protocol (TCP/IP) suit was created by the
Department of Defense (DoD).
The Internet Protocol can be used to
communicate across any set of interconnected
networks.
TCP/IP supports both LAN and WAN
communications.
The TCP/IP protocol stack maps closely to the
OSI model in the lower layers.
Networking Fundamentals

2009, Velocis Systems

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Internet Layer Overview

Application
Transport
Internet
Data-Link

Internet Protocol (IP)


Internet Control Message
Protocol (ICMP)
Address Resolution
Protocol (ARP)

Physical
In the OSI reference model, the network layer corresponds to the TCP/IP Internet
layer.
Networking Fundamentals

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Internet Protocol
Provides connectionless, best effort delivery routing of datagrams.
IP is not concerned with the content
of the datagrams.
It looks for a way to move the
datagrams to their destination.
Networking Fundamentals

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IP Datagram

Bit
1 0
Version
(4)

Bit 15 Bit 16
Header
Length (4)

Type
of Service (8)

Identification (16)
Time-to-Live (8)

Protocol (8)

Bit 31
Total Length (16)

Flags
(3)

Fragment Offset (13)


Header Checksum (16)

20
Bytes

Source IP Address (32)


Destination IP Address (32)
Options (0 or 32 if Any)
Data (Varies if Any)

Networking Fundamentals

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IP Datagram
Version Currently used IP version
Header Length Datagram header length
TOS Level of importance assigned by a particular upper-layer protocol
Total Length- Length of packet in bytes including Data and Header
Identification Identifies current datagram (Sequence Number)
Flags Specifies whether the packet can be fragmented or not
Fragment Offset Used to piece together datagram fragments
TTL It maintains a counter that gradually decreases, in increments, to zero
Protocol It indicates which upper-layer protocol receives incoming packets
Header Checksum Calculated checksum of the header to check its integrity
Source IP Address Sending node IP Address
Destination IP Address Receiving node IP Address
Options It allows IP to support various options like security
Networking Fundamentals

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Protocol Field
Transport
Layer

UDP

TCP
6

Internet
Layer

17

Protocol
Numbers

IP

Determines destination upper-layer protocol


Networking Fundamentals

2009, Velocis Systems

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Address Resolution Protocol


(ARP)
ARP works at Internet Layer of DoD Model
It is used to resolve MAC address with the
help of a known IP address.
All resolved MAC addresses are maintained
in ARP cache table, which is maintained.
To send a datagram this ARP cache table is
checked and if not found then a broadcast is
sent along with the IP address.
Machine with that IP address responds and
the MAC address is cached.
Networking Fundamentals

2009, Velocis Systems

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Address Resolution Protocol


I need the
Ethernet address
of 176.16.3.2.

172.16.3.1

172.16.3.2

IP: 172.16.3.2 = ???

Networking Fundamentals

2009, Velocis Systems

1-94

Address Resolution Protocol


I need the
Ethernet address
of 176.16.3.2.

I heard that broadcast.


The message is for me.
Here is my Ethernet
address.
172.16.3.1

172.16.3.2

IP: 172.16.3.2 = ???

Networking Fundamentals

2009, Velocis Systems

1-95

Address Resolution Protocol


I need the
Ethernet address
of 176.16.3.2.

I heard that broadcast.


The message is for me.
Here is my Ethernet
address.
172.16.3.1

172.16.3.2

IP: 172.16.3.2 = ???


IP: 172.16.3.2
Ethernet: 0800.0020.1111

Networking Fundamentals

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Address Resolution Protocol


I need the
Ethernet address
of 176.16.3.2.

I heard that broadcast.


The message is for me.
Here is my Ethernet
address.
172.16.3.1

172.16.3.2

IP: 172.16.3.2 = ???


IP: 172.16.3.2
Ethernet: 0800.0020.1111

Map IP
Networking Fundamentals

Ethernet
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DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol)

The DHCP server dynamically assigns IP address to hosts.

All types of Hardware can be used as a DHCP server, even a


Cisco Router.

Following information is provided by DHCP while host


registers for an IP address:

IP Address
Subnet mask
Domain name
Default gateway (router)
DNS

Networking Fundamentals

2009, Velocis Systems

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Internet Control Message


Protocol
ICMP messages are carried in IP datagrams and used to send
error and control messages.
Application
Transport

ICMP
Internet

Destination
Unreachable
Echo (Ping)
Other

Data-Link
Physical

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ICMP Ping

Networking Fundamentals

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Transport Layer Overview

Application
Transport
Internet

Transmission Control
Protocol (TCP)

ConnectionOriented

User Datagram
Protocol (UDP)

Connectionless

Data-Link
Physical

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TCP Segment Format


Bit 0

Bit 15 Bit 16
Source Port (16)

Bit 31
Destination Port (16)

Sequence Number (32)


Acknowledgment Number (32)
Header
Length (4)

Reserved (6) Code Bits (6)


Checksum (16)

20
Bytes

Window (16)
Urgent (16)

Options (0 or 32 if Any)
Data (Varies)
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TCP Segment Format


Source port Number of the calling port
Destination Port Number of the called port
Sequence Number Number used to ensure correct sequencing of the arriving
data
Acknowledgement Number Next expected TCP octet
Header Length Length of the TCP header
Reserved Set to zero
Code Bits Control Functions (setup and termination of a session)
Window Number of octets that the sender is willing to accept
Checksum Calculated checksum of the header and data fields
Urgent Pointer Indication of the end of the urgent data
Options One option currently defined (maximum TCP segment size)
Data Upper layer protocol data

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TCP Three-Way Handshake/Open


Connection
Host A

Send SYN
(seq = 100 ctl = SYN)

SYN Received

Established
(seq = 101 ack = 301
ctl = ack)

Networking Fundamentals

Host B

SYN Received
Send SYN, ACK 2
(seq = 300 ack = 101
ctl = syn,ack)

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UDP (User Datagram Protocol)


A connectionless and unacknowledged protocol.
UDP is also responsible for transmitting
messages.
But no checking for segment delivery is provided.
TCP and UDP uses Port no. to listen to a
particular services.

Networking Fundamentals

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UDP Segment Format


Bit
1 0

Bit 15 Bit 16
Source Port (16)

Bit 31
Destination Port (16)

Length (16)

8
Bytes

Checksum (16)
Data (if Any)

No sequence or acknowledgment
fields
Networking Fundamentals

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UDP Segment Format


Source port Number of the calling port
Destination Port Number of the called port
Length Number of bytes, including header and data
Checksum Calculated checksum of the header and data
fields
Data Upper layer protocol data

Networking Fundamentals

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WAN Basics

2009, Velocis Systems

WAN Overview

Service
Provider

WANs connect sites


Connection requirements vary depending on
user requirements and cost
Networking Fundamentals

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What is a WAN?

A WAN is a data communications network that covers a relatively broad geographic


area and often uses transmission facilities provided by common carriers, such as
telephone companies.

Networking Fundamentals

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Serial Implementation of
DTE versus DCE
Data Terminal Equipment

Data Communications Equipment

End of the users device


on the WAN link.

End of the WAN providers.


side of the communication facility.
DCE is responsible for clocking.

DCE

DTE
S

DTE

Networking Fundamentals

DCE

Modem
CSU/DSU

S
S

S
S

DCE

DTE

2009, Velocis Systems

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WAN Terminating Equipment


Physical Cable Types

Router
To Corporate
Network

WAN Provider
(Carrier) Network

EIA/TIA-232
V.35
X.21
HSSI

Modem
Usually on the
Customers
Premises
DTE

Data Terminal Equipment


The Customers
Equipment
Networking Fundamentals

DCE

Data Circuit-Terminating Equipment


The Service Providers
Equipment
2009, Velocis Systems

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Serial Transmission
WAN Serial connectors use serial
transmission
Serial transmission uses one bit at time
over a single channel.
Cisco Routers use a proprietary 60 pin
serial connector.
Connector at the other end of the cable
will depend on your service provider or
end device requirements.
Networking Fundamentals

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LAN/WAN Devices

1999,
Cisco
Systems,
Inc.
2009,
Velocis
Systems

LAN/WAN Devices

Hubs
Bridges
Switches
Routers

Networking Fundamentals

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Hub

Device that serves as the center of a


star topology network, sometimes
referred to as a multiport repeater, no
forwarding intelligence

Networking Fundamentals

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Hubs
123

126

124

127

Hub
125

Data

Networking Fundamentals

Data

128

Amplifies signals
Propagates signals through the network
Does not filter data packets based on destination
No path determination or switching
Used as network concentration point
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Hubs Operate at Physical layer

Physical

All devices in the same collision domain


All devices in the same broadcast domain
Devices share the same bandwidth
Networking Fundamentals

2009, Velocis Systems

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Hubs: One Collision Domain


More end stations means
more collisions
CSMA/CD is used

Networking Fundamentals

2009, Velocis Systems

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Bridge
Device that connects and passes packets
between two network segments.
More intelligent than hubanalyzes
incoming packets and forwards (or filters)
them based on addressing information.

Networking Fundamentals

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Bridge Example
123

126

Bridge

124

127

Hub

Hub

125
Segment 1

128
Corporate Intranet

Segment 2

More intelligent than a hubcan analyze incoming packets


and forward (or filter) them based on addressing information
Collects and passes packets between two network segments
Maintains address tables

Networking Fundamentals

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Switches
Use bridging technology to
forward traffic between ports.
Provide full dedicated data transmission
rate between two stations that are
directly connected to the switch ports.
Build and maintain address
tables called content-addressable
memory (CAM).

Networking Fundamentals

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SwitchingDedicated Media
Workstation

10-Mbps
UTP Cable
Dedicated

31

Switch

32

35
100 Mbps

33

34

100 Mbps

36

Corporate Intranet

Uses bridging technology to forward traffic (i.e.


maintains address tables, and can filter)
Provides full dedicated transmission rate between
stations that are connected to switch ports
Used in both local-area and in wide-area networking
Networking Fundamentals

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Switches and Bridges Operate at


Data Link Layer
Data Link

OR

Each segment has its own collision domain


All segments are in the same broadcast domain
Networking Fundamentals

2009, Velocis Systems

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Switches

Switch

Memory

Each segment has its own


collision domain
Broadcasts are forwarded
to all segments

Networking Fundamentals

2009, Velocis Systems

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Routers
Interconnect
Interconnect LANs
LANs and
and WANs
WANs
Provide
Provide path
path determination
determination
using
using metrics
metrics
Forward
Forward packets
packets from
from one
one
network
network to
to another
another
Control
Control broadcasts
broadcasts to
to the
the
network
network
Networking Fundamentals

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Network Layer Functions (cont.)


1.1

1.2

1.0

4.0

1.3
E0

2.1

2.2

S0

S0

Routing Table
NET INT Metric
1
E0
0
2
S0
0
4
S0
1

4.3
E0

4.1

4.2

Routing Table
NET INT Metric
1
S0
1
2
S0
0
4
E0
0

Logical addressing allows for hierarchical network


Configuration required
Uses configured information to identify paths to networks
Networking Fundamentals

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Routers: Operate at the


Network Layer
Broadcast control
Optimal path
determination
Traffic management
Logical addressing
Connects to WAN
services

Networking Fundamentals

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Network Device Domains


Hub

Bridge

Switch

Router

Collision Domains:
1
4
Broadcast Domains:
1
Networking Fundamentals

4
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