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Understanding GPRS

Guided By:
Manan Thakkar

Prepared By
Sukant Debnath

What is GPRS???
GPRS (General Packet Radio Service ) = Mobile +
Technology that permits mobile data
communication using packet switching technique.
Circuit Switching and Packet Switching

Circuit Switched

Packet Switched

Telephone Network.
End to end connection
establishment is needed.
Dedicated Resource for 1
user are reserved during
call establishment.
Only 30-40% of the
resources are effectively
Speech is transferred in
real time.
Speech does not accepts
Error in transmission are
not so critical for speech.
Charging is usually based
on time.

Data Network
No connection needed.
Resources are shared
between different user
sessions, not dedicated.
Resources are requested
on demand, more
efficient use.
Packet are not sent in
real-time (Buffering and
Error connection and
detection possible.
Charging is usually based
on volume (Number of

GPRS Network Architecture

GPRS Network Architecture( Contd.)

GPRS: New Network Elements and

New Interfaces
Service GPRS Support Node (SGSN)
Control connection between network and mobile
Session management and GPRS mobility management
function (Handover, paging etc.)
Counts the number of packet routed.
Attached with HLR via Gr and MSC/VLR via Gs
Responsible for routing data packet to correct GGSN.
Connected with BSC through Gb interface.

Gateway GPRS Support Node

Provides gateway between the GPRS network and the
public packet data network (PDN) or other GPRS
Contains routing information for attached GPRS users
May provide a dynamic IP address for a requesting mobile
Performs GPRS Mobility Management (GMM)
Provide Quality of Service (QoS) support
Counts the number of packet routed for accurate
Connected with SGSN through Gn interface and HLR with Gc

Packet Control Unit (PCU)

GPRS/GSM Mobile Classes

Class A: MS can attach to both GPRS and
other GSM services; MS supports simultaneous
operation of GPRS and other GSM services.

Class B: MS can attach to both GPRS and

other GSM services, but MS can operate only one
set of service at a time and is capable of
monitoring one paging channel at a time.

Class C: MS can exclusively attach to GPRS


GPRS Mobile Phone Operation

Idle State: State in which the mobile
phone camps onto the GSM network. Phone
recieves circuit switched paging and
behaves as a GSM phone.
Ready State: The mobile can activate a
packet data protocol (PDP) context which
allows the phone to establish a packet
transfer session with external network to
send and receive data packets.
Standby State: State in which the mobile
is connected to the GPRS network, but no
data transmission occurs.

Coding Schemes In GPRS

GPRS uses 4 coding
schemes according to
the C/I ratio between
the MS and BTS.
Coding scheme CS1
has the highest error
correction and low
data throughput.
CS4 has no error
correction but the
highest data

Coding Schemes (Contd..)

Link Adaptation (Code Switching)

The selection of the most appropriate
coding scheme for coming transmissions,
according to the estimated link quality, is
called Link Adaptation or Code Switching.
How it works:
1. Collect measurements and make an estimate of
the channel quality
2. Compare the results with thresholds
3. Make decision to change or maintain the current
The decision is done by statistical testing methods based on the
BLER measurements.

Link Adaptation (Contd..)

Retransmissions always with same
coding scheme

GPRS Time Slots

Dedicated Timeslot (CDED): Exclusively reserved
for GPRS traffic and no CS traffic can be transmitted
on them.
Default Timeslot (CDEF): GPRS traffic that can be
dynamically configured to handle CS load if needed.
Additional Timeslot: CS traffic timeslot can be
dynamically configured into a GPRS time slot,
during peak traffic period.

CS Traffic Leaves Some Capacity

For PS Traffic:

GPRS Attach Procedure

GPRS attach request is
made to SGSN, by
notifying its identity as
MS sends old RAI,
classmark and attach type.
SGSN attach mobile and
inform HLR about RAI
change and also update
the location with VLR.
GPRS attach does not
enable the MS to transmit
and receive data

PDP Context Activation

It activate packet
communication with SGSN.
During the activation
procedure, the mobile
phone either provides a
static IP address or
requests a temporary one
from the network and also
Upon receiving information
from the mobile, the SGSN
determines which GGSN is
connected to the APN and
forwards the request.

Practical Consideration
ZEQO Command Used to Check CDED, CDEF, Cmax,
Coding Scheme, RAC, NSEI, UL/DL BLER for CS
selection parameter etc.
ZFXL is used to check every PCU with is
corresponding BCSU. And how many cells are
attached to 1 PCU and NSEI.
Each PCU supports 2 NSEI. And each NSEI support
256 time-slots.
To reduce overload and less handovers between
NSEIs during GPRS access on the move, NSEI Load
balancing process is done.
229 Report is used to check multi-slot assignment in
downlink (%), GPRS territory upgrade reject
(%), GPRS traffic, total RLC payload data (kbyte),
Number of TBFs established in UL/DL.

Advantages of GPRS:
User point of view:
Instant access to data on the move.
Charging based on amount of data transferred
(Not the time connected).
Higher transmission speed.

Operator point of view:

More revenue.
Huge potential market for data services.
Fast roll out and continues network expansion.
Efficient utilization of network.

Thank You..