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BUILDING THE

FOUNDATION
BUILDING THE FOUNDATION (SKINNER, GLASSER AND GORDON)
BY
AIZAD & AZROY

The Skinners Model of


Shaping Desired Behaviour
Definition:

The practice of providing


consequences for both positive and
negative behaviour.

Skinners ideas

Systematic use of reinforcement (rewards) can shape


pupils' behaviour in desired directions.

Behaviour becomes weaker if not followed by


reinforcement.

Behaviour is also weakened by punishment.

Behaviour modification
pupil perform
an desired
act

teacher
gives reward

pupil tends
to repeat the
act.

pupil perform
an undesired
act

teacher
ignores the act
or punishes
the pupil

praises a pupil
who is
behaving
correctly

misbehaving
pupil less likely
to repeat the
act.

Types of reinforcers uses in


behavior modification

Social - verbal comments, gestures, and facial expressions.

Graphic - marks of various kinds such as numerals,


checks, happy faces, and special symbols.

Activity - activities that pupils prefer to do in school

Tangible - real objects that pupils can earn as rewards

STRENGTHS

WEAKNESSES

It is simple to use.
Results are immediate.

The results might not last long


Students may not perform as desired
when rewards are terminated

It accommodates most teachers'


desire to maintain control.

Students may not learn how to govern


their own behavior.

Students can feel successful when


they obtain rewards.

The approach may seem too much like


bribery to some teachers

Standards of behavior are uniform, It ignores any underlying problems


consistent, and clear to all students.
caused by influences at home, in
society, or at school
Time does not have to be spent in To use so much control in a democratic
class discussing rules and students'
society may be unethical
conduct.
It can be readily employed with all
students regardless of age.

Students do not get an opportunity to


clarify emotions, weigh alternatives,
decide on solutions, or develop their
intellect

application
Classroom scenario
Pupils in the calss rarely use English in ESL class. How would
Skinners model dealt with this situation?

Catch pupil that speak English even a little. Reward the pupil for speaking
in English.

Set up contract with the class. Identify a reward that is exceptionally


attractive to them.

The Glassers Model of Choice


Theory

Choice theory states that:

all we do is behave,

that almost all behavior is chosen, and

that we are driven by our genes to satisfy five basic needs:


survival, love and belonging, power, freedom and fun.

concept

Pupils can choose to act the way they want to

Good choices produce good behaviour. Bad choices produce bad


behaviour

Teachers must always try to help pupils make good choices

No excuses for bad behavior

There is always consequences follow the behavior

Class rules are essential and they must be enforced.

Classroom meeting

Teachers duty

Emphasise pupil responsibility


Establish rules that lead to success
Accept no excuses

Call for value judgment


Invoke reasonable consequences
Be persistent

Strenght and weaknesses

Strengths

promote a high degree of autonomy and responsibility for


students.

They help students see a wide range of possible consequences


for their behaviour.

They allow students to determine solutions to their own discipline


problems.

They help students understand their needs and how to satisfy


these need legitimately.

They delineate clearly what a teacher needs to do for every


misbehaving student.

Weaknesses

I
it is difficult for teachers to help students satisfy their need
for control without feeling threatened themselves.

I
it is difficult to react properly when communicating with
students about their inappropriate behaviours.

Classroom meetings may consume more time than is


desirable.

It may be difficult to help students who do not want to be in


school to make plans to improve their behaviour.

Students may not have the necessary skills to make plans


that will help improve their behaviour.

application
Classroom scenario
Pupils in the class rarely use English in ESL class. How would
Glassers model dealt with this situation?

Make sure pupils understand their work responsibilities as a pupil in the


class

Make sure pupils understand that they can choose their behavior, to use English or
not, and that his choice brings with it either desirable or undesirable consequences.

Make sure that when pupils show improvement, they receive consequences that are very
attractive to them

Never give up on them.

Gordons Model

teachers can plot pupils behaviour into a diagram called Behaviour


Window
Behaviour Window

Communication
skills

active listening

confrontative Imessages

shifting gears

no-lose conflict
resolution

values collisions

WHO OWN THE PROBLEM?

Gordon reminds teachers to ask themselves, "Who owns the


problem?".

Although the teacher ultimately assumes responsibility for the


classroom, the student actually "owns" many of the problems.

For example, one daydreaming student does not interfere with


the progress of an entire class. Although the teacher should send
the message that daydreaming is unacceptable, the problem is
the student's and, ultimately, he or she will have to accept
responsibility for changing the behaviour.

Key ideas

"I" messages - messages that tell another person how you feel
about their behaviour.

"You" messages - blaming statements

Confrontative "I" Messages - messages that attempt to


influence another to stop the unacceptable behaviour.

Shifting Gears - changing from Confrontative to a listening


posture

Win-Lose conflict resolution - ends the dispute temporarily with a


winner and a loser.

No-Lose conflict resolution - everyone wins

Door openers - words or actions that invites folks to talk about


what is on their minds

Active Listening -carefully listening and demonstrating


understanding of what another person is saying

Values Collisions- is anything a person believes will make the


quality of life better or very concrete like food or money

SIX STEPS PROBLEM SOLVING


PROCESS

Step 1: Identify and define the problem or situation. Good


solutions depend on accurate identification of the problem at
hand.

Step 2: Generate alternatives. Once the problem is clarified a


number of possible solutions should be generated

Step 3: Evaluate the alternative suggestions. When alternatives


have been specified, participants are asked to comment on them.
The goal is to choose a solution that is agreeable to all

Step 4: Make the decision. After examining the alternatives, the


one that seems to suit most people best is selected for trial.

Step 5: Implement the solution or decision. The trial solution is


put into place with the understanding that it may or may not
work as anticipated and that it can be changed if necessary.

Step 6: Conduct a follow-up evaluation. The results of the trial


solution or decision are analysed and evaluated.

Strength and weaknesses


Strengths

It promotes autonomy and self-regulation for students.

It promotes good student-teacher relationships.

It allows students to deal with personal problems and feelings.

It helps teachers communicate their needs to students so that


students can appreciate how their behaviour affects others.

It helps students understand that teachers have needs and


feelings just like they do.

Weaknesses

Teachers may find some difficulty changing their role from


directing and controlling students to actively listening.

Teachers may have difficulty accepting value differences between


themselves and their students.

Transmitting I-messages instead of you-messages will be


understandably difficult for teachers to master.

A more comprehensive approach may be needed to help


teachers avoid having to deal with the number of possible
problems likely to surface.

application
Classroom scenario
Pupils in the class rarely use English in ESL class. How would
Glassers model dealt with this situation?

Applying the six steps approach the following are the possible ways
to deal with the the above situation:

Approach the problem by asking the pupils neutral open


questions to gain information about why the pupils do not use
English in the class. Listen attentively to the response to build
trust and communication.

Ask the pupils for suggestions on ways to help them to speak in


English

From the different ways that they had suggested ask them list
down the strengths and weaknesses

Ask them the best way to do it

Work on details on how the chosen way could be implemented

After implementing the way that they had decided on, assess
whether it works for them or not.