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The Skinners Model of

Shaping Desired Behaviour

The practice of providing

consequences for both positive and
negative behaviour.

Skinners ideas

Systematic use of reinforcement (rewards) can shape

pupils' behaviour in desired directions.

Behaviour becomes weaker if not followed by


Behaviour is also weakened by punishment.

Behaviour modification
pupil perform
an desired

gives reward

pupil tends
to repeat the

pupil perform
an undesired

ignores the act
or punishes
the pupil

praises a pupil
who is

pupil less likely
to repeat the

Types of reinforcers uses in

behavior modification

Social - verbal comments, gestures, and facial expressions.

Graphic - marks of various kinds such as numerals,

checks, happy faces, and special symbols.

Activity - activities that pupils prefer to do in school

Tangible - real objects that pupils can earn as rewards



It is simple to use.
Results are immediate.

The results might not last long

Students may not perform as desired
when rewards are terminated

It accommodates most teachers'

desire to maintain control.

Students may not learn how to govern

their own behavior.

Students can feel successful when

they obtain rewards.

The approach may seem too much like

bribery to some teachers

Standards of behavior are uniform, It ignores any underlying problems

consistent, and clear to all students.
caused by influences at home, in
society, or at school
Time does not have to be spent in To use so much control in a democratic
class discussing rules and students'
society may be unethical
It can be readily employed with all
students regardless of age.

Students do not get an opportunity to

clarify emotions, weigh alternatives,
decide on solutions, or develop their

Classroom scenario
Pupils in the calss rarely use English in ESL class. How would
Skinners model dealt with this situation?

Catch pupil that speak English even a little. Reward the pupil for speaking
in English.

Set up contract with the class. Identify a reward that is exceptionally

attractive to them.

The Glassers Model of Choice


Choice theory states that:

all we do is behave,

that almost all behavior is chosen, and

that we are driven by our genes to satisfy five basic needs:

survival, love and belonging, power, freedom and fun.


Pupils can choose to act the way they want to

Good choices produce good behaviour. Bad choices produce bad


Teachers must always try to help pupils make good choices

No excuses for bad behavior

There is always consequences follow the behavior

Class rules are essential and they must be enforced.

Classroom meeting

Teachers duty

Emphasise pupil responsibility

Establish rules that lead to success
Accept no excuses

Call for value judgment

Invoke reasonable consequences
Be persistent

Strenght and weaknesses


promote a high degree of autonomy and responsibility for


They help students see a wide range of possible consequences

for their behaviour.

They allow students to determine solutions to their own discipline


They help students understand their needs and how to satisfy

these need legitimately.

They delineate clearly what a teacher needs to do for every

misbehaving student.


it is difficult for teachers to help students satisfy their need
for control without feeling threatened themselves.

it is difficult to react properly when communicating with
students about their inappropriate behaviours.

Classroom meetings may consume more time than is


It may be difficult to help students who do not want to be in

school to make plans to improve their behaviour.

Students may not have the necessary skills to make plans

that will help improve their behaviour.

Classroom scenario
Pupils in the class rarely use English in ESL class. How would
Glassers model dealt with this situation?

Make sure pupils understand their work responsibilities as a pupil in the


Make sure pupils understand that they can choose their behavior, to use English or
not, and that his choice brings with it either desirable or undesirable consequences.

Make sure that when pupils show improvement, they receive consequences that are very
attractive to them

Never give up on them.

Gordons Model

teachers can plot pupils behaviour into a diagram called Behaviour

Behaviour Window


active listening

confrontative Imessages

shifting gears

no-lose conflict

values collisions


Gordon reminds teachers to ask themselves, "Who owns the


Although the teacher ultimately assumes responsibility for the

classroom, the student actually "owns" many of the problems.

For example, one daydreaming student does not interfere with

the progress of an entire class. Although the teacher should send
the message that daydreaming is unacceptable, the problem is
the student's and, ultimately, he or she will have to accept
responsibility for changing the behaviour.

Key ideas

"I" messages - messages that tell another person how you feel
about their behaviour.

"You" messages - blaming statements

Confrontative "I" Messages - messages that attempt to

influence another to stop the unacceptable behaviour.

Shifting Gears - changing from Confrontative to a listening


Win-Lose conflict resolution - ends the dispute temporarily with a

winner and a loser.

No-Lose conflict resolution - everyone wins

Door openers - words or actions that invites folks to talk about

what is on their minds

Active Listening -carefully listening and demonstrating

understanding of what another person is saying

Values Collisions- is anything a person believes will make the

quality of life better or very concrete like food or money



Step 1: Identify and define the problem or situation. Good

solutions depend on accurate identification of the problem at

Step 2: Generate alternatives. Once the problem is clarified a

number of possible solutions should be generated

Step 3: Evaluate the alternative suggestions. When alternatives

have been specified, participants are asked to comment on them.
The goal is to choose a solution that is agreeable to all

Step 4: Make the decision. After examining the alternatives, the

one that seems to suit most people best is selected for trial.

Step 5: Implement the solution or decision. The trial solution is

put into place with the understanding that it may or may not
work as anticipated and that it can be changed if necessary.

Step 6: Conduct a follow-up evaluation. The results of the trial

solution or decision are analysed and evaluated.

Strength and weaknesses


It promotes autonomy and self-regulation for students.

It promotes good student-teacher relationships.

It allows students to deal with personal problems and feelings.

It helps teachers communicate their needs to students so that

students can appreciate how their behaviour affects others.

It helps students understand that teachers have needs and

feelings just like they do.


Teachers may find some difficulty changing their role from

directing and controlling students to actively listening.

Teachers may have difficulty accepting value differences between

themselves and their students.

Transmitting I-messages instead of you-messages will be

understandably difficult for teachers to master.

A more comprehensive approach may be needed to help

teachers avoid having to deal with the number of possible
problems likely to surface.

Classroom scenario
Pupils in the class rarely use English in ESL class. How would
Glassers model dealt with this situation?

Applying the six steps approach the following are the possible ways
to deal with the the above situation:

Approach the problem by asking the pupils neutral open

questions to gain information about why the pupils do not use
English in the class. Listen attentively to the response to build
trust and communication.

Ask the pupils for suggestions on ways to help them to speak in


From the different ways that they had suggested ask them list
down the strengths and weaknesses

Ask them the best way to do it

Work on details on how the chosen way could be implemented

After implementing the way that they had decided on, assess
whether it works for them or not.