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UNDERGROUND

CABLES

Introduction

p.399

Generally electric Cables consists of


Conductors :Stranded copper or
aluminum conductors (as illustrated in
OHTL)
Insulation: to insulate the conductors
from direct contact or contact with earth
External protection: against

Overhead Lines Versus


Underground Cables p. 464
1- The insulation cost is more in case of
cables
as compared to O.H.T Lines and depends
on operating voltage of cable.
kV
: 0.4 11 33 66 132 220
400
Cost ratio: 2
3
5
7
9
13 24
2- The erection cost of O.H.T lines is much
less than the underground cables.
3- Inductive reactance of O.H.T. Lines is
more, so the voltage regulation is better
in case of underground cables (Low
voltage drop).

4- Capacitance and charging current is high


in case of underground cables.
C
Xc = 1/C
Charging current (Ich)= V/Xc = C.V
For long distance power transmission, the
charging current is very high results in over
voltages problems.
Its not recommended to transfer power for
a long distance using underground cables.
5- Current carrying capacity is more in case
of O.H.T Lines conductors (better cooling
conditions)
for
the
same
power
transmission. Therefore, low cross sectional
area and cost for O.H.T Lines conductors.

6- Underground cables give greater


safety, so it can be used in:
- Big cities and densely populated
area.
- Submarine crossing.
- Power stations and substations.
- Airports.

Cable Construction
1- Conductors (Cores)
Stranded aluminum or copper
conductors
Conductors with high conductivity and
low resistance.
2- Insulation: to insulate the conductors
from direct contact or contact with
earth.
3- Screening (Insulator shielding):
semi-conductor material to uniformly
distribute the electric field on insulator.

4- filling material.
5- Metallic sheath: A sheath made of
lead or aluminum or cupper is applied
over
the
insulation
to
prevent
moisture or chemicals from entering
the insulation.
6- Armour: ( )Bars of steel to increase
the mechanical strength of cable.
7- Outer cover to protect the metal
parts of cables ( rubber).

22kv Medium Voltage Underground XLPE Power Cable

11kv Copper Core and Shield Power Cable 25mm


http://jpcable99.en.made-inchina.com/product/KMVEouLAhBRW/China-11kv-Copper-Core-andShield-Power-Cable-25mm.html

500 Kv High Voltage XLPE Cable (YJLW02/ YJLW03)

Types of Cables Insulating


materials

Performance p.
Insulator
material should have:
400

- High insulation resistance (M-G).


- High dielectric strength.
- Good mechanical strength.
- High moisture resistance (non-

hygroscopic)
- Withstand temperature rise.
- Not affected by chemical

Types p. 400
1- Vulcanized Rubber Insulations:
Rubber is used in cables with rated
voltage
600- 33 kV.
Two main groups: General Purpose
Special Purpose
Four Main Types: Butyl rubber
Silicon rubber
Neoprene rubber
Styrene rubber

2- Polymer Insulations:
2.1 PVC (Poly Vinyl Chloride)
- rated voltage 3.3 kV.
- Grades of PVC: General Purpose Type
Hard Grade Type
Heat resisting Type
2.2 Polythene (Polyethylene)
- XLPE ( ) rated voltage up
to
275 kV.

3- Paper insulated :
3.1 Paper insulator: rated voltage V
up to 66 kV
3.2 Oil- impregnated paper is used
in solid type cables up to 69 kV
and
in
pressure
cables
(gas or oil pressure ) up to 345 kV.

Types of Cables p.466


1- Number of Cores:
- Single- Core Cables.
- Multi-Core Cables

2- According to Insulating Material

- Paper Cables
- Polymer Cables
PVC XLPE
- Rubber Cables
EPR - PR

3- According to Voltage Level

- High and Extra High voltage


Cables
H.V: 33 230 kV
EHV: V > 230 kV

- Medium Voltage Cables


V: 1- 33 kV

- Low Voltage Cables


V up to 1 kV.

4- According to Utilization of Cables


- Transmission and Distribution Cables
XLPE Cables- Paper cables
- Installation Cables
PVC
- Submarine Cables
Rubber cables
-Industrial Cables
PVC up to 3.3 kV
XLPE up to
11 kV

Electrical Characteristics of
Cables p. 408

Electric Stress in Single-Core Cables p.


408

D= q/(2x)
E = D/ = q/(2x)
q: Charge on conductor surface (C/m)
D: Electric flux density at a radius x
(C/m2)
E: Electric field (potential gradient), or
electric stress, or dielectric stress.
: Permittivity ( = 0. r)
r: relative permittivity or dielectric
constant.

R
V E.dx
ln
2

r
r
E

q
2 .x

V
R
x. ln
r

r: conductor radius.
R: Outside radius of insulation or inside
radius of sheath.
V:
potential
difference
between
conductor
and
sheath
(Operating
voltage of cable).
Dielectric Strength: Maximum voltage
that dielectric can withstand before it
breakdown.
Average Stress: Is the amount of voltage
across the insulation material divided
by the thickness of the insulator.

Emax = E at x = r
= V/(r.lnR/r)
Emin = E at x = R
= V/(R.lnR/r)
For a given V and R, there is a
conductor radius that gives the
minimum stress at the conductor
surface. In order to get the
smallest value of Emax:
dEmax/dr =0.0
ln(R/r)=1
R/r=e=2.718

Insulation thickness is:


R-r = 1.718 r
Emax = V/r

(as:

ln(R/r)=1)

Where r is the optimum


conductor radius that satisfies
(R/r=2.718)

Example
A single- core conductor cable of 5
km long has a conductor diameter of
2cm and an inside diameter of sheath
5 cm. The cable is used at 24.9 kV
and 50 Hz. Calculate the following:
a- Maximum and minimum values of
electric stress.
b- Optimum value of conductor radius
that results in smallest value of
maximum stress.

a- Emax = V/(r.ln(R/r)) = 27.17 kV/cm


Emin = V/(R.ln(R/r)) = 10.87 kV/cm
b- Optimum conductor radius r is:
R/r = 2.718
r= R/2.718= 0.92 cm
The minimum value of Emax:
= V/r = 24.9/0.92=27.07 kV/cm