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POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS

Unsymmetrical Fault Analysis

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Saffet AYASUN


Department of Electrical and
Electronics Engineering
Nide University
03/22/15

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Fault Analysis

We consider faults at the general threephase bus shown


Terminals abc, denoted the fault terminals,
are brought out in order to make external
connections that represent faults.
Before a fault occurs, the currents Ia; Ib, and
Ic are zero.

Procedure

Set up all three sequence networks

Interconnect the networks at the point of


the fault to simulate the short circuit

Calculate the 012 (sequence components)


currents and voltages

Transform to ABC currents and voltages

Thevenin Equivalent Circuit

The sequence
components of the fault
currents, I0; I1, and I2,
are zero before a fault
occurs.
Each sequence network
has a Thevenin
equivalent impedance.
Also, the positivesequence network has a
Thevenin equivalent
voltage source, which
equals the prefault
voltage VF.

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Example 1

A single-line diagram of the power system is shown above, where negative- and zerosequence reactances are also given. The neutrals of the generator and Y
transformers are solidly grounded. The motor neutral is grounded through a
reactance Xn = 0.05 per unit on the motor base.

Draw the per-unit zero-, positive-, and negative sequence networks on a 100MVA, 13.8-kV base in the zone of the generator.

Reduce the sequence networks to their Thevenin equivalents, as viewed from


bus 2. Prefault voltage is VF = 1.050 per unit. Prefault load current and Y
transformer phase shift are neglected.

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Example 1: Solution

The negative sequence Thevenin impedance is (j0.21)//(j0.17+0.10+0:105+0.1)=


(j0.21)//(j0.475) = j0.14562 per unit.

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Example 1: Solution

Thevenin impedance at bus 2 consists only of (j0.10 + 0.15)= j0.25 per unit, as
seen to the right of bus 2; due to the connection of transformer T2, the zerosequence network looking to the left of bus 2 is open.

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Example 1: Solution

The positive-sequence Thevenin impedance at bus 2 is the motor impedance


j0.20, as seen to the right of bus 2, in parallel with j(0.15 + 0.1+ 0.105 + 0.10)=
j0.455, as seen to the left; the parallel combination is (j0.20)//(j0.455)= j0.13893
per unit.

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Example 1: Thevenin equivalent circuits

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Example 2: Three-phase short-circuit


calculations using sequence networks

Calculate the per-unit subtransient fault currents in phases a; b, and


c for a bolted three-phase-to-ground short circuit at bus 2 in
Example 1

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Example 2: Three-phase short-circuit


calculations using sequence networks

The sequence components of the line-to-ground voltages at the fault


terminals are,

During a bolted three-phase fault, the sequence fault currents are


I0=I2 = 0 and I1 = VF/Z1; therefore, the sequence fault voltages are
V0 = V1 = V2 = 0, which must be true since Vag =Vbg =Vcg= 0.
However, fault voltages need not be zero during unsymmetrical
faults, which we consider next.

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Unbalanced Fault Analysis

unbalanced faults
single-line to ground 60-75%
double-line to ground 15-25%
line-to-line faults 5-15%

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Single-Line to Ground Fault

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Single-Line to Ground Fault

We now transform the fault conditions given in phase domain to the


sequence domain

The fault conditions can be satisfied by interconnecting the sequence


networks in series at the fault terminals through the impedance 3ZF

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Single-Line to Ground Fault: Sequence


Networks Connection

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Example 3

Calculate the subtransient fault current in per-unit and in kA for a bolted


single line-to-ground short circuit from phase a to ground at bus 2 in Example 1.
Also calculate the per-unit line-to-ground voltages at faulted bus 2.

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Example 3: Solution
the sequence currents:

the subtransient fault current:

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Example 3: Solution

The sequence components of the voltages at the fault are:

Transforming to the phase domain, the line-to-ground voltages at faulted bus 2


are

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Example 4

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Example 4: Solution

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Example 4: Solution

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Example 4: Solution

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Example 4: Solution

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Line-to-Line Faults

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Line-to-Line Faults

We now transform the fault conditions given in phase domain to the


sequence domain

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Line-to-Line Faults: Sequence Networks


Connection

The fault conditions in sequence


domain are satisfied by connecting the
positive- and negative-sequence
networks in parallel at the fault
terminals through the fault impedance
ZF .

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Line-to-Line Faults
Fault currents:

Phase current:

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Example 5

Calculate the subtransient fault current in per-unit and in kA for a bolted


line-to-line fault from phase b to c at bus 2 in 1

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Example 5: Solution

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Example 6: A line-to-line fault at bus 3

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Example 6: Solution

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Example 6: Solution

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Example 6: Solution

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Example 6: Solution

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Double Line-to-Ground Faults

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Double Line-to-Ground Faults

We now transform the fault conditions given in phase domain to the sequence
domain

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The positive and negative sequence


networks will be connected in
parallel. Sayasun

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Double Line-to-Ground Faults

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Double Line-to-Ground Faults: Sequence


Networks Connection

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Example 7

For a bolted double line-to-ground fault from phase b to c to ground at bus 2


in Example 1 Calculate:
the subtransient fault current in each phase,
neutral fault current,
contributions to the fault current from the motor and from the transmission
line, (Neglect the Y transformer phase shifts.)

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Example 7: Solution

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Example 7: Solution

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Example 7: Solution

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Example 7: Solution

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Example 8: Double Line-to-Ground Fault at


Bus 3

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Example 8: Solution

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