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# POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS

## Assoc. Prof. Dr. Saffet AYASUN

Department of Electrical and
Electronics Engineering
Nide University
03/22/15

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Fault Analysis

## We consider faults at the general threephase bus shown

Terminals abc, denoted the fault terminals,
are brought out in order to make external
connections that represent faults.
Before a fault occurs, the currents Ia; Ib, and
Ic are zero.

Procedure

## Interconnect the networks at the point of

the fault to simulate the short circuit

## Calculate the 012 (sequence components)

currents and voltages

## Thevenin Equivalent Circuit

The sequence
components of the fault
currents, I0; I1, and I2,
are zero before a fault
occurs.
Each sequence network
has a Thevenin
equivalent impedance.
Also, the positivesequence network has a
Thevenin equivalent
voltage source, which
equals the prefault
voltage VF.

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Example 1

A single-line diagram of the power system is shown above, where negative- and zerosequence reactances are also given. The neutrals of the generator and Y
transformers are solidly grounded. The motor neutral is grounded through a
reactance Xn = 0.05 per unit on the motor base.

Draw the per-unit zero-, positive-, and negative sequence networks on a 100MVA, 13.8-kV base in the zone of the generator.

## Reduce the sequence networks to their Thevenin equivalents, as viewed from

bus 2. Prefault voltage is VF = 1.050 per unit. Prefault load current and Y
transformer phase shift are neglected.

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Example 1: Solution

## The negative sequence Thevenin impedance is (j0.21)//(j0.17+0.10+0:105+0.1)=

(j0.21)//(j0.475) = j0.14562 per unit.

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Example 1: Solution

Thevenin impedance at bus 2 consists only of (j0.10 + 0.15)= j0.25 per unit, as
seen to the right of bus 2; due to the connection of transformer T2, the zerosequence network looking to the left of bus 2 is open.

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Example 1: Solution

## The positive-sequence Thevenin impedance at bus 2 is the motor impedance

j0.20, as seen to the right of bus 2, in parallel with j(0.15 + 0.1+ 0.105 + 0.10)=
j0.455, as seen to the left; the parallel combination is (j0.20)//(j0.455)= j0.13893
per unit.

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## Example 2: Three-phase short-circuit

calculations using sequence networks

## Calculate the per-unit subtransient fault currents in phases a; b, and

c for a bolted three-phase-to-ground short circuit at bus 2 in
Example 1

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## Example 2: Three-phase short-circuit

calculations using sequence networks

terminals are,

## During a bolted three-phase fault, the sequence fault currents are

I0=I2 = 0 and I1 = VF/Z1; therefore, the sequence fault voltages are
V0 = V1 = V2 = 0, which must be true since Vag =Vbg =Vcg= 0.
However, fault voltages need not be zero during unsymmetrical
faults, which we consider next.

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## Unbalanced Fault Analysis

unbalanced faults
single-line to ground 60-75%
double-line to ground 15-25%
line-to-line faults 5-15%

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sequence domain

## The fault conditions can be satisfied by interconnecting the sequence

networks in series at the fault terminals through the impedance 3ZF

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## Single-Line to Ground Fault: Sequence

Networks Connection

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Example 3

## Calculate the subtransient fault current in per-unit and in kA for a bolted

single line-to-ground short circuit from phase a to ground at bus 2 in Example 1.
Also calculate the per-unit line-to-ground voltages at faulted bus 2.

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Example 3: Solution
the sequence currents:

## the subtransient fault current:

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Example 3: Solution

## Transforming to the phase domain, the line-to-ground voltages at faulted bus 2

are

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Example 4

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Example 4: Solution

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Example 4: Solution

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Example 4: Solution

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Example 4: Solution

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Line-to-Line Faults

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Line-to-Line Faults

sequence domain

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Connection

## The fault conditions in sequence

domain are satisfied by connecting the
positive- and negative-sequence
networks in parallel at the fault
terminals through the fault impedance
ZF .

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Line-to-Line Faults
Fault currents:

Phase current:

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Example 5

## Calculate the subtransient fault current in per-unit and in kA for a bolted

line-to-line fault from phase b to c at bus 2 in 1

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Example 5: Solution

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## Example 6: A line-to-line fault at bus 3

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Example 6: Solution

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Example 6: Solution

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Example 6: Solution

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Example 6: Solution

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## Double Line-to-Ground Faults

We now transform the fault conditions given in phase domain to the sequence
domain

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## The positive and negative sequence

networks will be connected in
parallel. Sayasun

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## Double Line-to-Ground Faults: Sequence

Networks Connection

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Example 7

## For a bolted double line-to-ground fault from phase b to c to ground at bus 2

in Example 1 Calculate:
the subtransient fault current in each phase,
neutral fault current,
contributions to the fault current from the motor and from the transmission
line, (Neglect the Y transformer phase shifts.)

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Example 7: Solution

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Example 7: Solution

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Example 7: Solution

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Example 7: Solution

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## Example 8: Double Line-to-Ground Fault at

Bus 3

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Example 8: Solution

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