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INDIAN HUMAN SPACEFLIGHT PROGRAM – DREAM OF 1.25 BILLION INDIANS

INDIAN HUMAN SPACEFLIGHT PROGRAM – DREAM OF 1.25 BILLION INDIANS

INTRODUCTION

India

plans to

build

a

crew

vehicle

that can

accommodate

2

or

3

astronauts and human rate its GLSV Mk-III launcher

Initially, a manned space flight was proposed before 2017, at a budget of Rs 12.4 billion ($242 million), using a fully autonomous orbital vehicle carrying two or three crew members to 400-km (250 miles) low Earth orbit for up to 7 days and back.

The planning commission approved the mission and the government

sanctioned mission. Following

Rs

the

95

crore

to

study all

aspects of the manned space

back-to-back failure of two GSLV flights in 2010, India

dropped definitive manned space flight plans. ISRO is instead concentrating on capability building.

INTRODUCTION • India plans to build a crew vehicle that can accommodate 2 or 3 astronauts

CREW VEHICLE

The modified Soyuz will be carried atop a GSLV II / GSLV III launcher that will lift off from a new (third) launch pad at ISRO's Satish Dhawan Space Center in Sriharikota.

ISRO's concept is to accommodate two, with an option for a third traveler, in a three ton capsule.

The spacecraft is being designed for a seven day mission on completion of which it will splash down either in the Arabian Sea or the Bay of Bengal.

On May 1, 2013, ISRO posted a new drawing of its CM (above), which is different from the drawing released during Aero India 2009 (Top).

The CM design has evolved but conceptually remains the same.

The service module now looks much larger than CM, which could be because ISRO has settled on a 2 man spacecraft.

CREW VEHICLE • The modified Soyuz will be carried atop a GSLV II / GSLV III

CREW ESCAPE SYSTEM

As part of its HSP, ISRO is developing a Crew Escape System (CES) which would allow astronauts in their crew module to safely separate from the launch vehicle and parachute down to safety in the event of an emergency on the launch pad, or during the initial ascent phase of launch.

The CES is powered by a Low altitude Escape Motor (LEM), a reverse flow solid propellant rocket engine with multiple nozzles mounted on the forward end.

The LEM will be stacked above the CM in an arrangement that keeps its exhaust gases clear of the crew.

The design of reverse flow solid rocket motor with multiple nozzles is a first for ISRO. ISRO plans to conduct a Launch Pad abort test in 2014.

CREW ESCAPE SYSTEM • As part of its HSP, ISRO is developing a Crew Escape System

CREW MODULE RE-ENTRY SYSTEM

In April 2013 ISRO conducted a Plasma wind tunnel test on a 1:28 scaled model of the Human Spaceflight Program (HSP) Crew Module (CM) at the 6 MW high enthalpy facility at VSSC to check the performance and evaluate the erosion characteristics of the Thermal Protection System (TPS) material of the CM.

The CM would encounter temperatures in the range of 6,000 K to 10,000 K during re- entry.

At

such

temperatures, the air gets dissociated and ionised and

reactive state.

gets into a hyper

Light weight, high performance TPS is employed to protect the vehicle in such a hostile environment.

The

Plasma wind

qualification of TPS.

tunnel facility simulates

the re-entry

thermal regimes for the

CREW MODULE RE-ENTRY SYSTEM • In April 2013 ISRO conducted a Plasma wind tunnel test on

HUMAN SPACE FLIGHT LAUNCH PAD

A new launch pad is being built for use with the Human Rated Launcher. Later, the new launch pad will be also used with the Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV).

It will be located 1 km south of Launch Pad 2, which was first used to launch the Chadrayaan-1 mission.

In January 2010 an ISRO official said design work on the third launch pad had been completed.

It will be able to take care of all future programmes of the ISRO, including the Human Space Flight Mission and the Reusable Launch Vehicle," the officials said.

HUMAN SPACE FLIGHT LAUNCH PAD • A new launch pad is being built for use with

ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL & LIFE SUPPORT SYSTEMS (ECLSS)

A chamber has been built to simulate a space environment and facilitate testing of of ECLSS and Flight Suit.

ISRO built five development Flight Suit variants functioning finalized the final configuration.

and

based on

a review

of their

It

built

two

engineering

modes based on

the final configuration

undergone functional acceptance tests.

and these have

Flight Suit has been tested to assess leak and material compatibility under vacuum conditions.

ISRO plans to commission an Environmental Simulation Chamber (ESC) before the end of 2014 to test engineering model of subsystems of ECLSS and the flight suit.

ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL & LIFE SUPPORT SYSTEMS (ECLSS) • A chamber has been built to simulate a

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