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Principles and Methods of Teaching 2

Views of Teaching:
Traditionalists:

Teaching is the process of


imparting knowledge and skills
required to master a subject matter. It
is a process of dispensing knowledge
to an empty vessel which is the mind
of the learner. In this instance the
teacher is the ultimate authority , a
director of learning.

Views of Teaching;
Progressivists and
Humanists
Teaching is
stimulating, directing, guiding,
and evaluating the learning
outcomes. The role of the teacher
becomes complex to give the
learner the responsibility to learn.
Teaching then is a process that
enables the learner to learn on his
own.

Teaching is a complex human


activities

Variables:
1. Teachers behavior (IV)
2. Learners behavior (DV)
3. Various entities such as
memories,
beliefs, needs , interferences
(IV)

The independent variables in the


teacher are:
1. Linguistic behavior or the verbal
communication ability of the teacher.
2. Expressive behavior- patterns of
communication through
change s in the tone, facial
expression and kinesis.
3. Performatory behavior includes physical
activities in the teaching learning process.

Teaching is Both a Science and an Art


Distinguishing marks between the two facets as pointed out by
Garcia
Teaching as a Science
Teaching as an Art
1. Directed to inform the
head
Focus: Cognitive and
psychomotor aspect of
learning

Suited to satisfy the


soul.
Focus: Affective domain

2. Views teacher as an
acade -mician as well as
a craftsman:
@ mastery of the
subject matter.
@ organize subject
matter well in a form
that is comprehensible to
the learners.
@ as a craftsman
he has a repertoire of
teaching methods and is
quite skillful in their use.

Views

teacher as an
innovator, one who is
willing to modify and
create new things.
@ goes beyond the
prescribed level of
instruction
@ believes that
teaching requires an
ability to see through and
respond to the individual
differences among
learners.

3. Regards teaching as
mechanical and
routinized in order to
make it more systematic
and more efficient.

Looks at teaching as a
dynamic and imaginative
process.

4. Calls for skillful teaching.

Makes teaching more


relevant and responsive to
the learners need, interests
and abilities.

5 . Aims at optimum
efficiency devoid of creating
something new.

Is destined to come out with


something novel or
innovation.

TEACHING

through the
process of

The young and immature


learner

Stimulating,
Guiding,
Directing,
Managing,
Evaluating,
Facilitating,
And Counselling

Learning activities
develop into

Teaching as a system requires


the role of a teacher in
stimulating, guiding, etc. the
learners who are inputs into d
system. Through learning
activities learners are developed
into

well-adjusted citizen with


wholesome personality imbued
with:
Love of country; the duties of
citizenship; moral character;
personal discipline; and
scientific, technological, and
vocational efficienty

TEACHING PROCESS

PLAN

Implement

Feedback and Reflections

Evaluate

Planning Stage of Teaching:


1.the achievable goals and objectives
to
meet the needs of the learners.
2 selection of content
3 the motivation to carry out the
goals
4. the strategies most fit to carry out
the
objectives
5. the evaluation process

Implementation Phase of Teaching:


This phase requires the teacher to
implement what has been planned.

It is putting into action the


different activities in order to achieve
the objectives, through the subject
matter.

Evaluation Phase:

A match of the objectives with


the learning outcomes will be made.

It answers the question if the


plan and implementation have been
successfully achieved.

Feedback and Reflection:


Feedback is to give information as to
whether the three phases were
appropriately done and gave good
results.
Reflection is the process embedded in
teaching where the teacher requires
into his actions and provides deep and
critical
thinking.

THE 8 Ms OF TEACHING ( as
conceptualized by Palma)

Millieu (the learning Environment)


Matter (Content)
Method (purposeful planned activities)
Materials (human and material resources)

Media
( system of communuication)
Motivation
Mastery; (The BE-all and End-all of learning)
Measurement (evaluation of learning
outcomes

Learnin
g
Outco
me

Learning
Process

No

E
V
I
R
O
N
M
E
N
T

MIND
Intellect/Will

yes

Personal
Meaning?
S
E
N
S
E
S

A
Milieu

Stimulus

B
- Matter
- Method
- Material
- Media

Response

C
- Motivation

Change
in
Behavior

Ideal
Perso
n

- Mastery

Measurement

4. Curriculum

5. Materials of Instruction

6. Administration

Teachers like like leaves ,


everywhere abound. Effective
teachers like fruits are rarely
found
A good teacher recognizes that
each pupil has as a different talent
hidden and unexplored. His duty is
to unearth it and help it blossom.
J.M. Machanda

Teacher:

Roles of Teachers in the TeachingLearning Process

Facilitator

a. the teacher allows and encourages children to be learn in different


ways about different topics depending upon their own needs, interests,
and learning styles.
b. the teacher encourages children to be active in their learn in their
learning rather than positive receivers of as teachers wisdom and
knowledge.
c. as a facilitator of learning, the teacher chooses the most
comfortable and appropriate the ways by which children learn.
d. the facilitative still provides direct instruction but careful combines
this with play and other activities.
e. the facilitative teacher is a good question-asker, posing
questions that encourage children to think about what they are doing in
new and intellectually more mature ways.
f. the facilitative teacher sees questions that children ask as excellent
opportunities for broadening and deepening their understanding of a
particular topic.
g. the facilitative teacher sees childrens mistakes or errors in
knowledge, concept, and understanding as evidences or signs of
continuing growth that should be built on rather than seen as
inadequacies or signs of failure.

Instructo
The teacher transmits knowledge but choose
rmeans
and moment that are appropriate, like,
demonstrating the use of new materials, reading a
story aloud to the class, sharing important
information that is given using direct instruction.
a. the teacher uses varied management
Manager
strategies
depending on the activities of the
children. Flexibility is the most important
ingredient in his/her multigrade learning
environment.
b. the teacher mobilizes community involvement
in the life of the multigrade classroom by
interacting with the community members.

Observer
a. the teacher observes the children individually at certain times; and
as a group at other times to be able to learn more about their
involvement in the classroom activities, to gain information about how
they relate with other children, and to gain more insights about the
quality their work and their way of thinking.
b. the teacher considers the information gained from observation as
essential to evaluation and curriculum planning.
c. the teacher moves around and observes children as they read story
aloud to one another in small groups and as they listen to the reader
and consider and considers this significant information about the
reading abilities of the children.
d. the teacher observes childrens interaction and their individual
emotional behavior to learn about the quality of the childrens social
interaction, such as how they work and play together, who can work
together, or who could be effective peer teachers.
c. the teacher anticipates the needs of the children and notes down
this information to remember what to address or discuss with individual
children or with parents if needed. Thus, the teacher achieves a more
complete understanding of the development of the child.

Assesso
a. the teacher has knowledge about the assessment process, to be able
r
to find out if children are achieving what they are supposed to be
achieving, if and how they have learned what they are supposed to learn.
b. the teacher combines formal assessment strategies to achieve
results that are more comprehensive and relevant to the purposes of
improving the quality of instruction.

Planner
a. the teacher makes daily at the beginning of the school year. This is
the time when the children are still adjusting to school and the teacher is
still getting to know them.
b. the teacher makes weekly as the year progresses.
c. the teacher as planner has broad goals and keeps instructional
objectives in mind as reference for the scope (coverage) and the
sequences (order to teach units of study) rather than adhere to these
guides rigidly at the expense of effective learning.
d. the teacher as planner develops weekly plans to carry out the yearlong plan so that the class moves at a slower pace than expected or
moves at a much faster pace, it will be easier to adjust the schedule of
activities.

COUNSELOR: Every teacher is a guidance counselor.

Motivator: Encourage children to study well and


become involve in the different classroom/ school
activities.

Leader: A leader is always looked upon as


somebody who is dependable and responsible .

Model: A teacher is an examplar. Pupils


idolize teachers. They believe what teacher
says.
Public Relation specialist: The credibility
of the school is attributed most of the time to
the ways the teachers deal with people.

Good Practices that a teacher does


to become a successful classroom
teacher:
The teacher must have a
1. good knowledge of his
students.
2. collection of a variety of
teaching and
learning strategies
3. time-efficient planning
techniques

LEARNERS:
someone who learns or takes up
knowledge or beliefs.
a person who is learning a subject or
skill.

LEARNERS:
someone who learns or takes up
knowledge or beliefs.
a person who is learning a subject or
skill.

The fundamental Equipment of the Learner:


A. Cognitive:
1. 2. Instinct

3.

4. Memory

5. Intellect

Appetitive Faculties:
1. Feelings and Emotions

2. Rational will

Factors Affecting Differences Among


Learners:
Aptitude

Interest

Family Background

Attitudes and Values

LEARNIN
G STYLES

Universal
Assumptions
about
learners

1. Children grow and develop


because of the interaction between
nature and nurture; between what
they have inherited and what they
learn from the environment.

NATURE
And
NURTUR
E

2. Children go through stages of


growth and development with a
predictable sequence or pattern.

3. Children are unique.

4. Childrens cognitive growth in any


one stage depends upon activity.

CLASSROOM

According to Aquino a good classroom has a stimulating climate one that


results not only from desirable physical surroundings and healthful conditions
but also from social relationship and emotional attitudes.
Classroom Environment includes:
1. Physical Environment

2. Social climate( autocratic, laissez-fair, democratic)

Psychological
Climate

- Safety

- teaching and
learning

- relationships

The Curriculum:
The sum total of all learning experiences, learning contents, and resources
that are properly selected, organized and implemented by the school in pursuit of
learning and human development.

Types of Curriculum:
1. Academic curriculum - refers to the formal list of courses by a school.
2. Extra curriculum - refers to those planned but voluntary activities that
are sponsored
by a school, such as sports, drama or
social clubs
3. Hidden Curriculum - Refers to those unplanned learning activities, but may
modify
behavior or influence learning outcomes.
Examples: teacher-learner interaction, mood of the teacher,
peer influence, etc.

Other types of
Curriculum Operating
in School
1. Recommended Curriculum
2. Written Curriculum
3. Taught Curriculum
4. Supported Curriculum
5. Assessed Curriculum
6. Learned curriculum

INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS

ADMINISTRATION