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SONIC LOGGING

By group 4
members

INTRODUCTION

Show relative measurement of formation capacity to


transmit

Can be used :

Usually sonic loging is used


in shallow are because
Fluid
content

Rock
matri
x

Factor
that
effecting
sonic
logging

porosit
y

fictitious
reflections

Lower
variation

BASIC PRINCIPLE OF SONIC


LOGGING
Wave propagation technique as applied in seismic
survey
Transducer produce sound waves by oscillating
motion in rock formation
In elastic medium , there are two types of medium.
hard medium = propagate fast
soft medium = propagate slow
Measurabl
e
properties

velocit
y

amplitude
frequenc
y

Snells law : acoustic signal behaves at the velocity


boundary separating the borehole and the formation.
It also explains on how the waves travel and bounce
back to the receiver.
As we all know snells law is used when it comes to 2
diff erent isotropic media but it also can be used within
diff erent media such as in the rock itself.
Acoustic logging toolsare designed to measure one or
more of these properties, with velocity (slowness) being
the most common.
The waveform recorded at the logging tools receivers is
a composite signal containing diff erent energy modes,
each with a diff erent frequency, velocity, and amplitude.

For borehole logging, the modes of primary interest


are, in order of arrival
compressional
Stoneley
shear

The particles do travel everywhere following the waves


but it only vibrates in its loci.

One way to classify acoustic waves is via direction of


particle displacement with respect to the direction of
wave propagation:
longitudinal(compressional)
transverse (shear)

Acoustic energy mode present in borehole are:


Normal (pseudo-Rayleigh)
Tube (Stoneley) waves

cementati
on

litholog
y

Factor
affecting
velocity
of waves

Overburde
n pressure

Clay
contetn
t

BASIC RESPONSE
The basic principle of the acoustic logging tool (operating
principle of the tool)
Sonic logging is a well logging tool that provides a
formations interval transit time, designated as t,
which is a measure of a formations capacity to
transmit seismic waves.
Geologically, this capacity varies with lithology and
rock textures, most notably decreasing with an
increasing eff ective porosity.
A sonic log can be used to calculate the porosity of a
formation if the seismic velocity of the rock matrix
are known.

Acoustic theory and wave propagation


The principles of borehole acoustic logging (and
surface seismic methods) are based on the theory of
wave propagation in an elastic medium.
The oscillating motion generated by a sound source
(transducer) in an elastic medium (rock formation) is
called an elastic wave or acoustic wave (also called
head or body waves).
The waveform recorded at the logging tools receivers
is a composite signal containing diff erent energy
modes, each with a diff erent frequency, velocity, and
amplitude.

BASIC RESPONSE OF ACOUSTIC


LOGGING TOOL

PROPERTIES FROM BASIC


RESPONSE

CALCULATION OF POROSITY FROM


SONIC LOG
The Wyllie Time Average Equation:

Can be written in terms of velocity or t


Empirically determined
For clean and consolidated sandstones
Uniformly distributed small pores

For uncompacted formations:

This is when adjacent shale beds have t values greater


than 100s/ft resulting in overestimation

The Raymer-Hunt equation:


Based on fi eld observation
Yields slightly greater porosity in the 5 to 25% range
Does not require compaction correction

ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES

CONCLUSION
The sonic measurement is one of the purest of log
measurements.
It requires very few assumptions and is largely
unbiased by models relative to nuclear and induction
tools.
The concept of the technique has not changed
profoundly since 1935, when Conrad Schlumberger
written the fi rst patent for sonic logging as we know
it today.
However, advances in technology and our increased
understanding of sonic waveforms in the borehole,
largely through computer based modeling, have
increased the applications of sonic logging far beyond
those imagined in the early decades of exploration
technology development in the 20th century.