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To move an aircraft without starting the engines, in order to position it
For servicing or
To enable passengers or
Cargo to be loaded, and if this operation is not carried out properly, severe
damage can be caused to the aircraft..
Great care should be exercised when manhandling light aircraft.
On aircraft having a nose-wheel landing gear, a steering arm should
be fitted to the nose wheel to guide the aircraft, and force should be
applied only to those parts of the structure, which are designed to accept it.
Force should not be applied to trailing edges of wings or control surfaces,
to streamlined wires, or to areas which are marked to prohibit the application
of force;
An engine should always be regarded as live, and therefore, a propeller
should not be used to push or pull the aircraft.

It is better to push an aircraft backwards rather than forwards, since

the leading edges of the wings and tail plane are stronger than trailing
But struts and undercarriages on some aircraft are suitable for pushing
the aircraft forwards.
The flat of the hands should be used when pushing, so as to spread the
load over the largest area, and when pushing on struts or undercarriages
the force should be applied as near to the end fittings as possible
On aircraft with steerable nose wheel connected to the rudder pedals,
care must be taken not to exceed the turning limits, which are normally
marked on the nose undercarriage leg.
On this type of aircraft it is also important that the rudder controls are
not locked during towing operation.
On aircraft, which are fitted with a tailskid instead of a tail wheel it is
customary to raise the tail by lifting on the tail plane struts near to the
fuselage fittings, so that the aircraft is balanced at the main wheels;

On some aircraft it may be advisable to place the propeller in a
horizontal position, to prevent it striking the ground when the tail is lifted.
When towing a light aircraft by means of a tractor, the correct tow-bar
should be connected between the towing attachment at the base of the nose
undercarriage leg and the tractor, and a person familiar with the aircraft
brake system should be seated in the cockpit to operate the brakes in an
emergency; the brakes should not normally be applied unless the aircraft is
A safe speed, depending on conditions in the vicinity.
A close watch should be kept on the wing tips and tail, particularly in
confined spaces, to ensure that they do not come in to contact with other
stationary or moving objects.


Large multi engine aircraft usually moved by towing with a tow-bar
attached to the nose undercarriage leg, a special tow tug (cradle) often
being required to provide sufficient Tractive effort (slow moving).
The tow-bar is fitted with a shear-pin or bolt, which will shear at a
predetermined load to prevent excessive force being applied to the nose
The centre of gravity (C of G) of the aircraft must be determined
before towing, to ensure that there is sufficient weight on the nose
Adverse fuel distribution, and the aircraft being in a non-standard
condition (e.g. with an engine removed), could affect the C of G
position,. Ballast may sometimes be required to achieve a safe C of G
position, but the maximum towing weight must not be exceeded.

Before towing is commenced the undercarriage ground locks should be

installed, the steering should, if applicable, be disconnected or disabled
(usually by removing a steering disconnection pin, by inserting a lock-out
pin or by tripping the associated circuit breaker),
and the nose undercarriage shock absorber should be checked for normal

In addition, the brake pressure should be checked and, if necessary,

built up to the minimum safe pressure (this is often accomplished by
operation of an electrically-driven hydraulic pump, which wheel complete
freedom of movement complete freedom of movement, but particular
attention must be paid to any limits imposed on aircraft having bogie
under carriages.

When towing the aircraft, two qualified pilots or suitably trained and
authorized members of the towing crew should be stationed in the cockpit,
to operate the brakes `and any other aircraft systems which may be required,
and to keep a lookout and monitor progress.

These persons should be in telephonic communication with the outside

ground crew and with the tractor driver. Ground crew should be located at
the wing tips and tail to guide the aircraft past any obstructions, and one
person should be in overall control of the operation.

The aircraft brakes should be released before the tractor moves off, and
towing speed should be kept down to a safe speed.
The radii of turns should be kept as large as possible, to minimize tire
scrubbing and twisting loads on the main undercarriage legs, and care
should be taken not to exceed any towing force limits which may be
specified in the relevant Maintenance Manual for various nose wheel
steering angles.

Before stopping, the aircraft should be towed in a straight line for a short
distance in order to remove any tyre stresses imposed by turning.
Once stationary the aircraft brakes may be re-applied. The tractor and
tow-bar may be removed, and the nose-wheel steering links refitted and
safety locked.
In circumstances where the towing load exceeds the nose wheel
limitations, towing bridles should be attached to the main undercarriage
legs and the aircraft should be towed using two tractors, one connected to
each main undercarriage leg.

In an emergency it may be necessary to move an aircraft from a runway

while it has one or more deflated tires. Provided that there is one sound
tire on axle the aircraft may be towed to the maintenance area, but
Sharp turns should be avoided,
Towing speed should be kept to an absolute minimum,
Brakes should be applied very carefully.
If an axle is not supported by a sound tire, however, the aircraft
may only be moved the shortest distance necessary to clear the active
The wheels with deflated tires must be removed and serviceable
components fitted before towing is continued.
After any tire failure the associated wheel must be inspected and it
may also be necessary to inspect the wheels and tires which have not
failed if the aircraft has landed or been towed with a deflated tire.

An aircraft may have to be jacked up for a variety if reasons,
Changing wheels,
Retraction tests,
(care is necessary to avoid damaging the aircraft.)

Jacking points are provided

in the wings and fuselage to enable the whole aircraft to be lifted,
usually, at the nose and main undercarriages to enable individual
wheels to be changed.
Some aircraft require a jacking pad to be fitted to each jacking
point in the wings and fuselage,
adapters to be fitted to the jacks
while in other cases special stirrups or beams may be required to
lift individual axles.

Because of the position of the jacking points, the centre of gravity

of some aircraft may, although satisfactory for flight, fall behind the main
jacking points and thus be unsatisfactory for jacking purposes. In these
cases it may be to add ballast forward of the main jacking points to bring
the centre of gravity within limits specified in the relevant Maintenance
Each jacking or steadying point may have a load limit, which, if
exceeded, could result in structural damage

Safety Measures
To avoid exceeding the limiting load at the jacking points it is sometimes
necessary to fit hydraulic or electrical load cells to the jacks ,
Ballast may have to be used to avoid exceeding the loading limit at a
steadying point.
Micro switches fitted to the undercarriage legs and operated by the extension or
contraction of the shock absorbers, are used to arm or disarm various electrical
circuits on an aircraft.
If the aircraft is jacked up these circuits should, therefore, be isolated by
tripping the appropriate circuit breakers or by removing the associated fuses, as
As a safety precaution, light aircraft normally be jacked inside a hangar,
But large aircraft may be jacked in the open provided that they are
headed into wind and that the surface is level and strong enough to support
the weight of the aircraft at the jacking points.

A maximum safe wind speed for jacking is generally specified in the

relevant Maintenance Manual.

Procedure For Satisfactory Jacking of Aircraft,

Strictly adhere to any additional precautions or actions specified in
the Maintenance manual for particular aircraft.
One person should be located at each jacking position and a coordinator should supervise the operation.
On large aircraft the levelling station should also be manned, and
all ground crew concerned should be in communication with the coordinator, headphones being used when necessary.
A bottle jack and an adapter or special fitting are often used when
raising a single undercarriage or part of a bogie beam for the purpose
of changing a wheel.
The remaining wheels should be chocked front and rear to prevent
aircraft movement,
Sometimes be specified that a tail support is located at the rear
fuselage jacking point when raising a nose undercarriage.

The jack should be raised only sufficiently to lift the unserviceable

wheel a few inches clear of the ground
Before lowering an aircraft to the ground, all ground equipment,
work stands, supports, etc., should be moved clear of the aircraft
structure to prevent inadvertent damage,
The wheels should be rotated by hand to check that the brakes are

The jacks should be lowered slowly by opening their pressure

release valves, and, to guard against failure of a jack, the locking nuts
on the jack rams should be unscrewed while the jacks are lowered and
kept within 50 mm (2 in) of the jack heads.
The jacks should be fully lowered after the aircraft is resting on its
wheels and the pressure release valves should be closed.
Chocks should then be placed in position, the jacks, jacking pads
and adapters should be removed from the aircraft,
Any electrical circuits which were disarmed as a safety measure
should be reinstated.

For some purposes, such as rigging or weighing, an aircraft must be
levelled laterally and longitudinally, and a number of different methods
may be employed.
Many aircraft are levelled by use of a spirit level, which is placed at
jigged positions on the airframe structure.
On light aircraft the longitudinally level position is generally obtained by
placing the spirit level on two pegs or on the heads of two partially
withdrawn screws on the side of the fuselage, and adjusting the jacks (or the
shock absorber extension or tyre pressures, if the aircraft is resting on its
wheels) until the spirit level is centred.
The laterally level position is obtained by placing the spirit level on
the centre-section spar boom (or other nominated position), and again
adjusting the jacks or tyre pressures until the level is centred.

With some large aircraft a spirit level may be used in conjunction with
special fittings, which are secured to locations in the centre fuselage or in
one of the wheel bays;
These fittings must be removed before flight and should have warning
streamers attached. If adjustments have been necessary to level an
aircraft laterally, the longitudinal level should be re-checked.
Note: In cases where tyre pressures are adjusted to level the aircraft,
care must be taken not to over-inflate to completely deflate a


On many aircraft a plumb bob is used in conjunction with a

levelling plate.

The plumb bob is suspended from a fixed position in the cabin roof
or upper part of a wheel bay, and hangs over a levelling plate, which
may be a permanent fixture or a separate fitting accurately located
on the cabin floor or lower part of the wheel bay.

The levelling plate is marked with a zero position and scales

indicating the adjustments required about the lateral and
longitudinal axes to centre the plumb bob.

The most accurate means of levelling an aircraft is by the use of an
engineers transit (theodolite) in conjunction with range poles or
scales located on the aircrafts lateral and longitudinal axes.
The transit is set up below the aircraft centreline and between the
lateral levelling points, and levelled horizontally.
Range poles or scales are then located at the four marked levelling
points on the lower surfaces of the fuselage and wings.
Sightings are first taken on the lateral range poles or scales, and the
main jacks are adjusted until identical readings are obtained.
Sightings are then taken on the longitudinal range poles or scales,
and the nose jack is adjusted until identical readings are again
obtained. The aircraft is then considered level and the transit can
be removed.
Note: The transit method is also employed when checking alignment of
the aircraft structure.

Check that the aircraft weight, fuel state and centre of gravity are within
the limits specified in the aircraft Maintenance Manual
Head the aircraft into wing if it is to be jacked in the open, chock the
main wheels front and rear, and release the brakes
If jacking an aircraft in a restricted space, ensure that there is adequate
clearance above every part of the aircraft to allow for its being raised, and
adequate access and lifting space for cranes or other equipment, which
may be required
Connect earthing cable to the earth points on the aircraft
Install the undercarriage ground locks
Fit jacking pads to the aircraft jacking points and adapters to jacks as
required. Load cells should also be fitted to the jacks at positions where a
maximum jacking load is specified
Position the jacks at each jacking point and raise them until the adapters
are located centrally in the jacking pads.

Care must be taken to ensure that the jacks are vertical, and that the
weight is evenly distributed over the legs of each jack
Remove the wheel chocks and slowly raise the aircraft, maintaining it
in a horizontal attitude as nearly as possible, until the undercarriage legs
are fully extended and the wheels are a few inches off the ground.
As a safety measure the locking nuts on the jack rams should be kept
in close proximity to the jack shoulders as the jacks are raised
Tighten the jack ram locking nuts, and place supports under the outer
wings and rear fuselage as indicated in the Maintenance Manual.

The positioning of these supports is most important, as they are usually

shaped to fit the under surface of the wing or fuselage and must be
located at a strong point such as a rib or frame; they are not intended to
support the weight of an aircraft


Under normal operating conditions the interior parts of an engine are
protected against
Corrosion by the continuous application of lubricating oil,
Operating temperatures are sufficient to dispel any moisture, which
may tend to form; after shutdown the residual film of oil gives
protection for a short period.
When not in regular service, however, parts which have been exposed
to the products of combustion, and internal parts in contact with acidic
oil, are prone to corrosion.
If engines are expected to be out of use for an extended period they
should be ground run periodically or some form of anti-corrosive
treatment applied internally and externally to prevent deterioration.

The maximum storage times quoted in the Leaflet are generally

applicable to storage under cover in temperate climates, and vary
considerably for different storage conditions.
Times may also vary between different engines, and reference must be
made to the appropriate Maintenance Manual for details.


Installed turbine engines which are to be out of use for a period of up to
seven days require no protection apart from fitting covers or blanks to
the intake, exhaust and any other apertures, to prevent the ingress of
dust, rain, snow, etc.
A turbine engine should not normally be ground run for the purpose of
preservation, since the number of temperature cycles to which it is
subjected is a factor in limiting its life.
For storage periods in excess of seven days additional precautions may
be necessary to prevent corrosion.

The following procedures will normally be satisfactory for a storage period
of up to one month.
The fuel lines and components mounted on the engine must be protected
from the corrosion which may result from water held in suspension in
the fuel.
The methods used to inhibit (prevent) the fuel system depend on the
condition of the engine and whether it is installed in an aircraft or not.
(Refer to appropriate Maintenance Manual )
On completion of inhibiting, the fuel cocks must be turned off.
Some manufacturers recommend that all lubrication systems (engine
oil, gear box oil, starter oil, etc.) of an installed engine should be drained,
Filters removed and cleaned

Some are recommend that the systems should be filled to the normal
level with clean system oil or storage oil.
The method recommended for a particular engine should be ascertained
from the appropriate Maintenance Manual
Exterior surfaces should be cleaned as necessary to detect corrosion, then
dried with compressed air.
Any corrosion should be removed, affected areas re-treated, and any
damaged paintwork made good in accordance with the manufacturers
instructions. Desiccant or vapour phase inhibitor should be inserted in the
intake and exhaust, and all apertures should be fitted with approved
covers or blanks.

For the protection of turbine engines which may be in storage for up to
six months, the short-term preservation should be applied and , in
addition, the following actions taken:
Grease all control rods and fittings
Blank off all vents and apertures on the engine,

wrap greaseproof paper round all rubber parts which may be

affected by the preservative

spray a thin coat of external protective over the whole engine

forward of the exhaust unit.
At the end of each successive six months storage period an installed
engine should be re-preserved for a further period of storage.
Alternatively, the engine may be removed from the aircraft and
preserved in a moisture vapour proof envelope.


Engines which have been removed from aircraft for storage, or
uninstalled engines which are being returned for repair or overhaul,
should be protected internally, and sealed in Moisture Vapour Proof
(MVP) envelopes.
This is the most satisfactory method of preventing corrosion, and is
essential when engines are to be transported overseas.
A piston engine should be drained of all oil, the cylinders inhibited ,
drives and inside of crankcase sprayed with cylinder protective, and all
openings sealed.
A turbine engine should be drained of all oil, fuel system inhibited, oil
system treated as recommended by the manufacturer, and blanks fitted to
all openings.
Particular care should be taken to ensure that no fluids are leaking from
the engine, and that all sharp projections, such as locking wire ends, are
suitably padded to prevent damage to the envelope.

Engines which have been removed from aircraft for

storage, or uninstalled engines which are being
returned for repair or overhaul, should be protected
internally, and sealed in Moisture Vapour Proof
(MVP) envelopes.
This is the most satisfactory method of preventing
corrosion, and is essential when engines are to be
transported overseas.
A piston engine should be drained of all oil, the
cylinders inhibited , drives and inside of crankcase
sprayed with cylinder protective, and all openings
A turbine engine should be drained of all oil, fuel
system inhibited, oil system treated as recommended
by the manufacturer, and blanks fitted to all openings.
Particular care should be taken to ensure that no
fluids are leaking from the engine, and that all sharp
projections, such as locking wire ends, are suitably
padded to prevent damage to the envelope.

The MVP envelope should be inspected to ensure that it is undamaged,

and placed in position in the engine stand or around the engine, as
The engine should then be placed in the stand, care being taken not to
damage the envelope at the points where the material is trapped between
the engine attachment point and the stand bearers.
Vapour phase inhibitor or desiccant should be installed in the
quantities and at the positions specified in the relevant maintenance
Manual, and a humidity indicator should be located in an easily
visible position in the envelope.
The envelope should then be sealed (usually by adhesive) as soon as
possible after exposure of the desiccant or vapour phase inhibitor.
The humidity indicator should be inspected after 24 hours to ensure that
the humidity is within limits (i.e. the indicator has not turned pink). An
unsafe reading would necessitate replacement of the desiccant and an
examination of the MVP envelope for damage or deterioration.
After a period of three years storage in an envelope the engine should be
inspected for corrosion and re-preserved.

Engine is storage should be inspected periodically to ensure that no
deterioration has taken place.

Engines which are not preserved in a sealed envelope should be

inspected at approximately two-weekly intervals.
Any corrosion patches should be removed and the protective treatment
re-applied, but if external corrosion is extensive a thorough inspection
may be necessary.
Envelopes on sealed engines should be inspected at approximately
monthly intervals to ensure that humidity with in the envelope is
If the indicator has turned pink the envelope should be unsealed, the
desiccant renewed and the envelope resealed.


The spraying equipment should be of a type approved by the engine
Should be operated in accordance with the instructions issued by the
manufacturer of the equipment.
A special nozzle is required, and this should be checked immediately
before use to ensure that the spray holes are unblocked.
Correct operation of the spray gun may be checked by spraying a
dummy cylinder and inspecting the resultant distribution of fluid.
Only the types of storage and inhibiting (preventing) oil recommended
by the manufacturer should be used for preserving an engine.
American manufacturers generally recommend oils and compounds to
American specifications, and British manufacturers generally
recommend British Specifications

Approved blanks or seals should be used whenever possible.
These are normally supplied with a new or reconditioned engine, and
should be retained for future use.
Pipe connections are usually sealed by means of a screw-type plug or
cap such as AGS 2108; these items are usually coloured for visual
Large openings such as air intakes are usually fitted with a specially
designed blanking plate secured by the normal attachment nuts, and the
contact areas should be smeared(applied) with grease before fitting, to
prevent the entry of moisture.
Adhesive tape may be used to secure waxed paper where no other
protection is provided, but should never be used as a means of blanking
off by itself, since it may promote corrosion and clog small holes or


For an engine which was not installed in an aircraft during storage the
installation procedure described in the appropriate Maintenance Manual
should be carried out, followed by a thorough ground run and check of
associated systems.
For an engine which was installed in an aircraft during storage the
following actions should be taken:Remove all masking, blanks and desiccant.
Clean the engine as necessary, e.g. remove excess external protective and
surplus grease from controls.
Ensure fire extinguisher spray pipe holes are clear.
Replace any components, which were removed for individual storage, as

Drain out all storage oil, oil filters and refill with normal operating oil.
Piston engines; remove sparking plug blanks and turn engine slowly to
drain excess oil from the cylinders, then fit plugs and connect leads.
Turbine engines; prime the fuel system in accordance with the
manufacturers requirements.
Prime the engine lubricating oil system.
Start the engine and carry out a check of the engine and associated

Appropriate entries must be made in the engine log book giving
particulars of inhibiting procedures or periodic ground running.
Such entries must be signed and dated by an appropriately licensed
engineer or Approved Inspector.
Before refuelling it should be ensured that the refuelling vehicle
contains the correct grade of fuel, as shown at the refuelling points on
the aircraft.
Precautions should be taken to provide a path to earth for any static
electrical which may be present or which may build up as a result of the
fuel flow.
The aircraft and the refuelling vehicle should be earthed to a point,
which is known to be satisfactory, and the earthing wire on the
refuelling pipe should be connected to the earth point provided on the
aircraft before connecting the refuelling pipe or removing the tank filler

The earthing wire should remain in position until after the refuelling
pipe is disconnected or the tank filler cap is replaced, as appropriate.
When draining fuel into buckets, containers or tanks, these should also
be bonded to the aircraft and / or the refuelling vehicle.
No radio or radar equipment should be operated while re-fuelling or defuelling is taking place, and only those electrical circuits essential to these
operations should be switched on.

When pressure re-fuelling, a float switch or fuel level shut-off

valve is often used to cut off fuel flow when the tanks are full, or have
reached a pre-set level.
Since pressure re-fuelling rates are very high, failure of these
components could cause rapid build-up in pressure and serious damage to
the tanks.
The tanks of some aircraft are fitted with pressure relief valves which can
be checked manually prior to refuelling, but when this is not the case
persons engaged in refuelling operations should be prepared to shut off
the supply instantly, should the automatic cut-off system fail to operate.

Note: When refuelling, the wheel chocks should be moved a short distance
away from the tyres, to prevent them being trapped when the tyres absorb the
additional weight.
Particular care should be taken when refuelling high-winged light aircraft,
since the upper wing surface will not normally be safe to walk on and the
filer cap may not be within easy reach.
A step ladder or stand should be used to gain access to the filler cap and
assist in preventing damage to the wing surface. Use of the steps will also
facilitate correct locking of the filler cap.
When a spillage of fuel has occurred, care should be taken to ensure that
all traces of fuel and vapour are removed.
Any residual (remaining) fuel should be mopped up and any fuelsoaked(saturated) lagging or fabric should be removed and cleaned.
The effects of the fuel on other such as cables, seals, bearings and windows
should also be considered and the appropriate action should be taken.

After refuelling an aircraft it is usually recommended that fuel is checked

for contamination, Drain valves are provided in the tank, sumps,
pipelines and filters, by means of which a small quantity of fuel may be
drained into a glass jar and checked for the presence of water, sediment
and microbiological contamination. Because of the slow rate of settlement
of water in turbine fuels it is usually the sample is taken.
With turbine-engined aircraft, samples may also be taken to determine
the specific gravity of the fuel in the tanks.


This gives general guidance on the removal of
from aircraft before flight.
Any deposits of ice, snow or frost external surfaces of an aircraft may
drastically affect its performance.
This can be due to reduced aerodynamic lift and increased aerodynamics
drag resulting from the disturbed airflow over the aerofoil surfaces, or due to
the weight of the deposit over the whole aircraft.
The operation of an aircraft may be also seriously affected by the
freezing of moisture in controls, hinges and micro switches, or by the
ingestion of ice into the engine.

The measures taken to remove frozen deposits on the ground must also
be such as to provide adequate protection during the initial stages of
Freezing Point Depressant (FPD) types FPD anti-icing compounds are
known to be effective in retarding the formation of frost, snow or ice
However, that the need for a close inspection of an aircraft prior to
take-off still remains

The aircraft de-icing systems are designed to remove or prevent the

accretion of ice on a specific area of the wings, tail and engine nacelles in
flight and would nor normally be effective in removing deposits which have
accumulated while the aircraft is stationary. Their use on the ground may, in
some instances, also cause a different type of unsatisfactory situation by
melting parts of the deposit, which would then freeze elsewhere. The use of
cabin heating to remove deposits from the fuselage is also not recommended
for the same reason.

When aircraft are moved so as to be under cover during inclement weather,

any melted snow or ice may freeze again when the aircraft is subsequently
moved into sub-zero temperatures. Complete protection could be provided by
placing aircraft in heated hangars, but due to the size of modern transport
aircraft and the need to meet schedules involving quick turnaround times this
is not often practicable. Removal of frost, ice and snow from aircraft is
therefore often necessary and maintenance crews need to be familiar with the
methods of ground de-icing in current use

There are two main types of de-icing /anti icing fluids,

Type I fluids (un-thickened)
Type II fluids (thickened)
These fluids have high glycol content and a low viscosity. The de-icing performance is good,
however, they provide only limited protection against refreezing.
These fluids have a minimum glycol content of approximately 50% and due to the thickening
agent have special properties, which enable the fluid to remain on the aircraft surfaces until
take-off. The de-icing performance is good and, in addition, protection is provided against
refreezing and / or build up of further accretions, when exposed to freezing precipitation.

The whole aircraft should be inspected to ensure that it is free from deposits of
frost, ice and snow. When necessary, a de-icing fluid should be used. The
objectives of using such fluids are to achieve effective removal of any frost or
ice and to provide a measure of protection against any further formation. Only
fluids approved for the purpose should be used.
The ability of the fluid to achieve the above objectives under varying
atmospheric conditions is dependent upon the correct mixture strength and
methods of application, both of which should be strictly in accordance with
recommended procedures. For example, while fluid diluted with water may
effectively remove ice, its ability to prevent further formation will be
significantly reduced, and under certain conditions the fact that the aircraft
surfaces are wetted may actually enhance the accumulation of wet snow.

Where adequate advise on approved fluids, mixture strength and methods of

application is not given in the relevant aircraft Maintenance Manuals, guidance
should always be sought from the aircraft, manufacturer and from the suppliers of the
fluid. The following information is only intended as general information and should
not be used to override that which is contained in the aircraft maintenance Manuals.
Advances in the composition of de-icing fluids have led to the production of a dualpurpose anti-icing barrier fluid (DTD 900/4907) which is capable of removing ice
and snow and delaying deposits re-forming. When used as a de-icing agent, this fluid
should be mixed with the required volume of water and applied at a temperature of
approximately 70C by the method described in paragraph 5.2. It is however,
strongly recommended that refractometer readings be taken so that the Precise
concentration of the solution can be determined.
Note: Pocket refractometers are available which permit on-site measurement of fluid
concentration as a refractive index, which can be converted to fluid/water
proportions accurately by means of a chart.
Note: Kilfrost ABC is normally available in a solution of 50/50, 60/40 or 70/30. it
may be difficult to get stronger solutions at short notice unless the temperature
conditions at the aerodrome involved are below limits for that solution mix (Refer
Table 2)


A deposit of frost is best removed by the use of a frost remover or, in severe
conditions, a de-icing fluid (e.g. Kilfrost ABC or similar proprietary fluids).
These fluids normally contain either ethylene glycol and isopropyl alcohol or
diethylene glycol (or propylene glycol) and isopropyl alcohol, and may be
applied by spray or by hand. The process is not lengthy, as one application is
usually sufficient, provided that it is applied with in the two hours prior to
Note: De-icing fluids may adversely affect glazed oanes ir the exterior finish
of aircraft, particularly when the paint is new. Only the type of fluid
recommended by the aircraft manufacturer should therefore be used and any
instructions relating to its use should be strictly observed.

De-icing fluids, particularly those with an alcohol base, may cause dilution or
complete washing out of oils and greases from control surface bearings, etc.,
allowing the entry of water which could subsequently freeze, jamming
controls. Spray nozzles should not, therefore, be directed at lubrication points
or sealed bearings and an inspection of areas where fluid may be trapped is
usually necessary. The maintenance Schedule may specify re-lubrication in
these areas whenever de-icing fluids are used.
Frost may also be removed from aircraft surfaces using a mobile unit capable
of supplying large quantities of hot air through a delivery hose and nozzle.
The air is blown on to the wings, fuselage and tail surfaces and either blow
away or melts any frost deposits. Operators using this equipment should
ensure that any melted frost is dried up and not allowed to accumulate in
hinges, micro switches, etc., where re-freezing could occur.


Mixture strength

Kilfrost ABC

Hoechst 1704

Mil. Spec.
Fluids 8243






-7 1/2C

-7 1/2C












Probably the most difficult deposit to deal with is deep wet snow when ambient
temperatures are slightly above freezing point. This deposit should be removed
with a brush or squeegee, care being taken not to damage aerials, vents, stall
warning vanes, pilot probes, vortex generators, etc., which many be concealed
by the snow. Light dry snow in sub-zero temperatures should be blown off
whenever possible; the use of hot air is not recommended. Since this would
melt the snow, which would then freeze and require further treatment. Moderate
or heavy ice and residual snow deposits should be removed with a de-icing
fluid, which may be successfully applied to any aircraft by spraying; in severe
conditions it may be necessary to spray a final application immediately before
flight. The aircraft nose and cockpit canopy should normally be left dry to
ensure that the windscreen does not become contaminated with fluid, which
could cause smearing and reduced vision. Windscreens should be cleared by
wiping with an alcohol soaked cloth or by use of the windscreen anti-icing
Note: * No attempt should be made to remove ice deposits or break an ice bond
by force.
* It is essential that removal of deposits proceed symmetrically.

Cold Fluid Spray.

A cold fluid spray is the simplest method of applying de-icing fluid, but
suffers from several disadvantages which must be considered in relation to
the particular circumstances.
In very severe conditions one sprayed application of cold fluid may not be
sufficient to remove all the ice and snow; brushing or rubbing thickly iced
areas is usually necessary, followed by a second or even third application of
fluid. As the ice and snow melts, the fluid is diluted , becomes less effective
and is prone to freezing again quite quickly. This may have serious
consequences If the diluted fluid is allowed to run into control surface and
landing gear mechanisms. Under these conditions the cold spray method
may be both prolonged and expensive.


Many airline operators have dispensed with the use of cold spraying techniques
except at small airports and in an emergency. They have adopted a hot fluid
spraying system which was developed specifically to reduce turnaround times
and to inhibit the bonding of ice and snow to aircraft surfaces for a period of
time. The equipment used consists of a static unit, in which quantities of both
water and de-icing fluid are heated, and a mobile unit, which houses an
insulated tank, a pump, an hydraulically-operated boom-mounted platform and
several spray lances.
In this system hot fluid pumped from the static unit to the insulated tank on the
mobile unit, the proportions of water and de-icing fluid being adjusted to suit
prevailing weather conditions. The mobile unit is then driven to the site of
operations, the optimum number and disposition of units being found by
experience on a particular aircraft type.

The fluid is normally sprayed on at a temperature of 70C and a pressure of 700

kN/m2 (100 lbf/in2), holding the nozzle close to the aircraft skin to prevent heat
losses. Heat is transferred to the aircraft skin, thus breaking the ice bond, and
large areas of ice may be flushed away by turning the nozzle sideways. In this
way, time is saved and the dilution of fluid with ice and snow reduced to a
minimum. The film of fluid left on the aircraft skin, being only slightly further
diluted, is effective in preventing ice re-forming.
Note: Overheating, in the de-icing rig, of most de-icing fluid will result in a
gelled formation being deposited on the aircraft which will not shear off on
take-off and may, therefore, have an adverse aerodynamic effect.
Hot water de-icing should not be carried out at temperatures below -7C, and
the second step must be performed within three minutes of the beginning of
step 1, if necessary area by area.
Step 1 Snow and ice is initially removed with a jet of hot water at a maximum
temperature of 95C.
Step 2 A light coating of de-icing fluid is then immediately applied to the
aircraft to prevent re-freezing.


High-pressure sprays used for de-icing are capable of causing damaged to pitot
static probes and other sensing devices. A carelessly directed spray could also
result in the ingress of a considerable quantity of fluid into engine intakes,
drains or vents, possible resulting in cabin smoke or malfunction of an
associated aircraft system. Where covers or bungs are provided they should be
fitted during de-icing operations. Where this is not possible care must be taken
to prevent direct impingement of the spray on any vents or probes.
High-pressure sprays can also cause erosion of the aircraft skin and some
aircraft manufacturers recommend a maximum impingement pressure, which is
quoted in the appropriate Maintenance Manual and should not be exceeded.


Aircraft taxi-through de-icing facilities are presently being used which de-ice
aircraft with the engines operating. Winter environmental conditions and the
manner of application create potentially unsafe conditions if an incorrect deicer solution is inadvertently sprayed into the engine / APU inlets or contacts
the exhausts when the engines or APU are operating. APU and engine bleeds
should be closed during such operations to minimise the risk of contamination
of the cabin environment.
De-icing fluids have a flashpoint of 139 to 156C in their undiluted
state which is within the engine / APU operating range. The numerous de-icing
fluids available also include some which have toxic characteristics that could
affect personnel or passengers if ingested by the air-conditioning system.
Some aircraft manufacturers issue instructions which contain precautions
concerning fluids and techniques for de-icing aircraft with engines operating. A
safety hazard could exist if the manufacturers instructions are not followed.
Safeguards should include procedures which ensure that de-icing fluids are
diluted below critical flashpoints and that such fluids are prevented from
entering air ducts, air-conditioning systems, and engines / APU inlets or
Fire and emergency equipment should be readily available at all times.

When used as an anti-icing agent, the FPD fluid should be sprayed onto the aircraft
cold and undiluted, either before the onset of icing conditions or after hot de-icing has
been carried out. This will leave a film of fluid approximately 0.5 mm (0.020 in) thick
on the surfaces sprayed and give protection overnight in all but the most severe weather
conditions. The fluid prevents ice and snow from sticking to the aircraft skin and given
time will melt any fresh precipitation. Newly fallen snow may be quickly removed by
blowing, and heavy ice deposits, such as those produced by freezing rain, may be
removed by a light and economical spray of hot fluid. Excess fluid will shear off during
the take-off run (but see paragraph (b.2 Note).
On some aircraft not equipped with an aerofoil de-icing system, the use of a de-icing
paste may be specified. This paste is intended to prevent the accumulation of frozen
deposits which may result from inadvertent flight into icing conditions. When spread
smoothly by hand over the leading edges of the wings and tail unit the paste presents a
chemically active surface, on which ice may from but may not bond. Any ice which
does from may ultimately be blown off in the air stream.
The paste should be reactivated before each flight in accordance with the
manufacturers instructions.
WARNING: It is important to note that de-icing pastes do not constitute an approved
method of de-icing otherwise unprotected aircraft for intended flights into known or
forecast icing conditions.


It is important to carry out an inspection of an aircraft after completion of de-icing
operations. The aircraft should also be continually monitored between de-icing and
departure to ensure no further ice build-up has occurred. The presence of ice in certain
areas may not be obvious to personnel handling the de-icing equipment.
Note: The effective duration of anti-icing fluids depends on concentration /temperature
of application, column of snow and ice, etc., subsequent temperature and time.
All external surfaces should be examined for signs of residual snow or ice, particularly
in the vicinity of control surface gaps and hinges. This is especially important where
control surfaces are sealed by curtains of the Westland Irvine type. Drainage or
pressure sensing holes and radiator honey combs should be checked to ensure that they
are not blocked. Where it has been necessary to physically remove a layer of snow all
protrusions and vents should be examined for signs of damage.
Where possible, control surfaces should be moved by hand to ascertain that they have
full and free movement. Where this is not possible the pilots controls should be gently
operated, bearing in mind that power-operated controls exert considerable force on the
control surface and could cause damage if any part of the circuit is frozen. If any
restriction is found, the control cables, pulleys, fairleads, hinges, etc., should be
examined and any frozen deposits treated with de-icing fluid until smooth control
operation is achieved.

The landing gear mechanism, doors bays and wheel brakes should be inspected
for snow or ice deposits, and the operation of unlocks and micro switches
checked. In very sever conditions it is possible for the tyres to become frozen to
the ground; they may be freed by the application of warm air to the ice (not the
tyre) and the aircraft should then be moved to a dry area.
Snow or rain can enter jet engine intakes after flight and freeze in the
compressor when the engine has cooled. If compressors cannot be turned by
hand for this reason, the engine should be blown through with hot air
immediately before starting, until the rotating parts are free.
The low temperatures associated with icing conditions may also introduce
problems apart from those associated with the clearance of precipitation.
Contraction of metal parts and seals can lead of fluid leakage and particular
attention should be given to landing gear shock absorber struts and hydraulic
Tyre and shock absorber strut pressures reduce with temperature and may
require adjustment in accordance with the loading requirements.

An entry should be made in the Technical Log as required by
British Civil Airworthiness Requirements, Section A, Chapter A6-8,
unless an alternative company procedure has been agreed by the






The purpose to connect an external electrical power supply to an aircraft,
Either for engine starting purposes or
To permit operation of the aircraft systems and equipment.
Certain precautions must be observed when connecting the external
supply, to prevent damage to the aircraft electrical system.
Most light aircraft have direct current (d.c.) electrical systems, and although
alternating current (a.c) is provided for the operation of certain equipment
It is not usual for the aircraft to have provision for the connection of a.c.
external power.

The external power socket is, therefore, usually for the connection of a d.c.
supply, which may be provided solely by batteries or from a generator and
battery set.
The following actions should be taken when connecting an external d.c.
supply to a typical light aircraft:
Check the voltage and polarity of the ground supply
Check that the external power plug and socket are clean, dry and
Check that the external supply and the aircraft batteries master switch
are off and connect the external supply, ensuring that the plug is fully
home in the socket
Switch on the external supply and the aircraft battery master switch, and
carry out the servicing operations for which the external power was

To disconnect the external supply, switch off the battery master switch,
switch off the external supply, disconnect the external power plug, and if
the aircraft electrical system is to be used (e.g. after engine starting), switch
the battery master switch on again.
Most large aircraft are provided with multi-pin plugs or sockets, by means
of which external d.c. or a.c. power may be connected into the aircraft
electrical system.
The external supply is usually provided by a towed or self-propelled unit,
which has its own power-driven generator and can provide d.c. power at
various voltages and a.c. power at a particular
and phase rotation

Procedure of connecting the external power to aircraft

Check that the external supply is compatible with the aircraft system (i.e.
it has the same voltage, frequency and phase rotation as the aircraft
system), and is switched off.
Check that the external plug and socket are clean, dry and undamaged.
Connect the external plug/socket, ensuring that it is fully mated and
secure, and switch on the external power supply.
Check the voltage and frequency of the external supply on the aircraft
electrical system instruments, and perform the operations specified in the
relevant maintenance manual to engage the external supply with the
aircraft a.c. system.
To disconnect the external supply, disengage it from the aircraft a.c.
system, switch off the external power at source, and remove the external
power plug/socket.

The appropriate Maintenance Manual should be consulted before any
work is carried out on the hydraulic system of any particular aircraft.
Failure to observe the precautions detailed by the manufacturer could
lead to damage to the aircraft, and, possibly, to physical injury.

Even when the aircraft pumps are stationary, high pressures are
maintained in parts of the system by the accumulators, and no
disconnections should be made while the system is pressurised.
Any specific instructions regarding the isolation of electrical circuits, or
the fitting of hydraulic safety locks during servicing, should be carefully

With a modern hydraulic system cleanliness is of the utmost importance.
The filters fitted in the aircraft system will normally protect the
components from the effects of particle contamination,
It is important that any ground equipment used for servicing purposes
is kept scrupulously(thoroughly) clean, and that the fluid is filtered to a
similar standard.
Contamination from other fluids must be also be avoided, and provision
is usually made for taking fluid samples.
Whenever a connection is broken, or a component is removed,
precautions must immediately be taken to prevent the ingress (enter) of
foreign matter or moisture.
If it is necessary to top-up the system, fluid should be poured directly
from a new fluid container into the reservoir, or a sealed dispensing rig
should be used. When the system is topped-up from a can, any unused
fluid should be discarded


Samples of the system fluid should be taken at the periods specified in

the approved Maintenance Schedule, and whenever contamination is
If a fluid sampling kit is available it should be used strictly in
accordance with the manufacturers instructions, but, if such a kit is not
available, the sample should be sent to a laboratory for examination.
The bottle into which the fluid is drained must be scrupulously clean, to
avoid adding to any contamination that may already be present in the
The bottle should be washed with soap and water to give a clean, bright
finish, rinsed in clean water, then in filtered alcohol, and dried with
clean dry air.
It is usually recommended that plastic sheet is interposed between the
bottle and the cap, to prevent the formation of loose particles when the
cap is screwed on.

When taking a sample, a suitable service should be operated to circulate

the fluid, and a small quantity should be drained from the sampling point
before filling the sample bottle.
Every precaution should be taken to prevent contamination of the sample,
and any instructions contained in the Maintenance Manual, or in the test
kit, should be carefully followed.
The parameters to be tested acidity,
specific gravity,
water content,
particle contamination,
and acceptable values are specified in the appropriate Maintenance
If slight contamination is present, the fluid should be circulated by
operation of the services, and a further sample taken.
If heavy contamination is found, the affected system should be flushed or
drained, and re-filled with clean fluid.

Flushing is normally required
After extensive removal
A replacement of pipelines or components,
This is carried out by operating the particular service a number of times,
so that any particle contamination may be trapped by the filters.
When it is necessary to flush the main system, the filters should be
changed and the fluid should be circulated by operating the largest
hydraulic jacks a number of times.
Either an auxiliary pump, or an external hydraulic test rig, may be used
for flushing, but, if an auxiliary pump is used, it is normally
recommended that it is subsequently removed and inspected for possible


The hydraulic system should be drained
whenever components which are not provided with self-sealing
couplings have to be removed,
and also when overheating or mechanical failure of a pump, or the
introduction of extraneous fluids or foreign matter, has resulted in
contamination of the system.
It is common practice to disconnect the engine-driven pump from the
system before commencing draining, so as to prevent the formation of
air locks in the pump and to maintain lubrication when the pump is
The hydraulic system should be made electrically safe (by the tripping
of circuit-breakers or the removal of fuses, as appropriate),

The hydraulic pressure should be released by operating one of the

services, and the air pressure should be released from the accumulators
and reservoir.
The reservoir filler cap should be removed, and fluid should be drained
into a clean container of suitable capacity, by means of the system drain
Drained fluid should be returned, in appropriately identified containers,
for reclamation by an approved process.
If fluid contamination is the reason for draining , it will also be
necessary to remove the filters, and to clean or replace the filter elements
as appropriate.
Cleaning is usually by an ultrasonic cleaning process, but washing in
trichloroethylene may also be permissible as a temporary measure.


Initial installation,
whenever the fluid has been drained,
The system should be filled and primed.
Filling may be carried out through the reservoir filler neck,
Through a priming connection in the ground-servicing bay, using an
external priming rig. The system is pressurized for priming purposes by
using either an aircraft electrically operated pump, or an external hydraulic
test rig.
To ensure correct operation of the system, all air must be removed fro the
pipelines and components. Some components are held by slackening the pipe
connections, allowing fluid to escape, then retightening; some components are
fitted with bleed valves, and others are purged by operating the service and
forcing any trapped air to return to the reservoir.
The aircraft should be jacked in accordance with the relevant Maintenance
Manual, and the accumulators should be charged with air nitrogen, as
appropriate. Ground electrical power should be connected, and the appropriate
fluid and pump overheat warning lamps should be tested.

The reservoir filler cap should be removed, the should be completely filled
with fluid, and the quantity indicators should be checked. The system should
be pressurised to normal system pressure, using the electrically operated pump
or test rig as appropriate, and one of the services should be operated until the
reservoir fluid level has stabilised. Trapped air should be released from the
reservoir, and fluid added to keep the level at maximum. This process should
be repeated for each service, bleeding being carried out where appropriate, and
careful watch being kept on the pump and fluid temperatures. Fluid bled or
drained from components must not be returned to the system.
After each service has been primed, the fluid level should again be checked. In
some systems the fluid level depends on the positions of various actuators, and,
before checking the fluid level, it is necessary to make the appropriate
selections, and to ensure that all accumulators and reservoirs are fully charged.
When filling and priming are completed, all connections should be checked for
tightness, and locked. Electrical power (and the hydraulic test rig, if used)
should be disconnected, and the aircraft should be lowered to the ground.
Engines should be run to check correct operation of the hydraulic services.

On modern aircraft, replenishment of engine oil, hydraulic fluid, de-icing fluid,
water, and other systems containing liquids, is achieved by the use of servicing
trolleys which are specially designed for the task and are connected into the
system by quick-release couplings; alternatively, and with older aircraft, these
systems may be replenished by removing the tank filler cap and pouring in the
required liquid. Whichever method is used, the utmost care should be taken to
ensure that only the approved liquids are used, and that no foreign matter is
allowed to enter the system. Servicing trolleys should be inspected regularly for
cleanliness, and their delivery pipes should be capped when not in use; all
utensils should be kept scrupulously clean, and should, preferably, be retained
for use with one particular liquid.

The quantity of liquid in a system may be indicated by a sight glass, by use of a dipstick, by its visible level in a filter fitted in the filler opening, or in some cases, by
means of a contents gauge, the transmitter unit for which is mounted in the tank. When
required, the system should be replenished to the full level; no system should be
overfilled, as this could affect system operation.
Precautions applicable to the replenishment of systems containing liquid are outlined in
paragraphs 1) to 4) below:
Some systems are pressurized in normal use, and this pressure should be released
before replenishing with liquid. When replenishing a hydraulic system, it may be
necessary to pre-set the hydraulic services to specified positions to prevent overfilling.
Some liquids, such as methanol, synthetic lubricating oils and hydraulic fluid, may be
harmful or even toxic if their vapours are breathed in or if they come into contact with
the skin or eyes. Particular note should be taken of any warnings of dangers to health
which may be contained in the relevant Maintenance Manuals, and the recommended
procedures for the handling of these liquids should be observed.
The liquids mentioned in paragraph 3) may also have an adverse effect on paintwork,
adhesives and sealant, and thus inhibit corrosion prevention schemes. Care should be
taken not to spill any of these liquids, but if a spillage does occur, immediate steps
should be taken to mop it up and clean the affected area

Lubrication should be carried out in accordance with a schedule approved for the
particular aircraft, the intervals normally being related to flying hours, with certain
positions requiring additional lubrication after ground de-icing operations and after
cleaning the aircraft.
The lubricant to be used, and the method of application, are usually annotated on a
diagram of the aircraft in the appropriate chapter of the aircraft Maintenance Manual.
The method of annotation is often by the use of mimic diagrams (e.g. an oil can for
oiling or a grease gun for greasing) and the type of lubricant is indicated by a symbol.
The utensils used for lubrication purpose should be kept scrupulously clean, and
should only be filled with new lubricant. Each utensil or container should be clearly
marked with the lubricant it contains, and should be kept solely for that lubricant.
When lubricating a component, care should be taken to ensure that the quantity
applied is adequate but not excessive; in some cases a particular quantity may be
specified in the Maintenance Manual (e.g. apply 8 drops of oil..) but normally a
quantity sufficient to cover the bearing surfaces, as evidenced by the exuding of new
lubricant, should be applied. The lubricating point should be wiped clean and dry with
a lint-free cloth before applying the oil grease, and any excess exuding from the
component should be wiped off to prevent the accumulation of dirt or foreign matter.
Effects of environmental conditions on aircraft handling and operation

Weather Operations
Particular care is essential in the operation of aircraft when temperatures are likely to
fall below freezing point at ground level. When snow or ice present towing and
taxying should be carried out with extreme caution and aircraft movements should
be kept to a minimum; parking areas should, if possible, be cleared of snow and ice,
so as to prevent aircraft tyres from freezing to the ground. If sand or grit is used
increase the tractive effort of tractors or assist the braking of aircraft, care should be
taken to prevent materials being drawn into operating engines; taxiways and hard
standing should be swept to remove any sand or grit after the snow and ice have
When parking an aircraft, all covers, plugs and ground locks should be fitted as soon
as possible. If the airframe is wet or affected by snow or ice, the surface under the
covers should be given a light coating of anti-freeze liquid; anti-freeze liquid should
not, however, be applied to the windows, since it has an adverse effect on plastics
materials. Engine covers should be fitted as soon as the engine has cooled
sufficiently, but in the case of turbine engines an inspection should be made for the
presence of ice in the air intake, since this could melt while the engine is hot, drain
to the lowest part of the compressor, and subsequently re-freeze when the engine
cools, locking the lower compressor