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2nd Semester 2008/2009

Areas and Volumes


Introduction

Surveying

Faculty of Applied Engineering and


Urban Planning
Civil Engineering Department

Areas and
Volumes

Planimeters

Digital Planimeter

Optical Polar Planimeter

Planimeters

Note : the accuracy of the results


obtained from using planimeter in the
measurement of areas depends mainly
on the original accuracy drawn map, as
well as on the experience of the operator
when tracing boundary of the figure.

Questions?!

Areas
1. Regular Figures

Mathematical Formulae

Method of Coordinates

2. Irregular Figures

Graphical Method

Trapezoidal Rule

Simpsons One-Third Rule

Mathematical Formulae

1
1
bh or a b sin(C)
2
2

1
h a b
2

a2

a b

1
180
2
n a cot

4
n

1
d2
4

Mathematical Formulae

r r
2
2

2
1

a b

1
2
r
360

2
bh
3

1 2

r
sin
2 180

Mathematical Formulae

20 m

15 m

Questions?!

Areas by Method of Coordinates

Areas by Method of Coordinates

Areas by Method of Coordinates

Areas by Method of Coordinates

Areas by Method of Coordinates


Area = 0.5(| 136840.01 (-84890.94) |)
= 110865.48 ft2

Questions?!

Content
Areas of Irregular Figures
1. Graphical Method
2. Trapezoidal Rule
3. Simspons One-Third Rule

Graphical Method

Trapezoidal Rule

Trapezoidal Rule

Trapezoidal Rule

Example

Offset

Simspons One-Third Rule

Intercept

ONLY

used with Odd number of offsets


(i.e. Even number of Intercepts)

Simspons One-Third Rule

Example

Area Calculation
Trapezoidal Rule

Simspons One-Third Rule

Content

Volumes by:
1. Average-End-Area Method
2. Prismoidal Method
3. Contour Maps

Volume from Spot Levels

Cut and Fill

Average-End-Area Method

Average-End-Area Method

Prismoidal Method

Calculating Volumes from Contour Map

Calculating Volumes from Contour Map

Calculating Volumes from Contour Map

Questions?!

Volume from Spot Levels

Volume from Spot Levels

Volume from Spot Levels

Mass Haul Diagram


A mass haul diagram is of great value both in planning
and construction.
The diagram is plotted after the earthwork quantities
have been computed, the ordinates showing
aggregate volumes in cubic metres while the
horizontal base line, plotted to the same scale as the
profile, gives the points at which these volumes
obtain.

Mass Haul Diagram


Most materials are found to increase in volume after
excavation ('bulking'), but after being re-compacted by
roller or other means, soils in particular might be found
to occupy less volume than originally, i.e. a 'shrinkage'
has taken place when compacted in the in situ volume.

Definitions
(1) Haul refers to the volume of material multiplied by the
distance moved, expressed in station meters'.
(2) Station meter (stn m) is 1 m3 of material moved 100 m,
Thus, 20 m3 moved 1500 m is a haul of 20 1500/100 =
300 stn m.
(3) Waste is the material excavated from cuts but not used for
embankment fills.
(4) Borrow is the material needed for the formation of
embankments, secured not from roadway excavation but
from elsewhere. It is said to be obtained from a borrow pit.
(5) Limit of economical haul is the maximum haul distance.
When this limit is reached it is more economical to waste
and borrow material.

Bulking and shrinkage

Excavation of material causes it to loosen,


and thus its excavated volume will be
greater than its in situ volume. However,
when filled and compacted, it may occupy
a less volume than when originally in situ.
For example, light sandy soil is less by
about 11% after filling, whilst large rocks
may bulk by up to 40%.
To allow for this, a correction factor is
generally applied to the cut or fill volumes.

Construction of the MHD

A MHD is a continuous curve, whose


vertical ordinates, plotted on the same
distance scale as the longitudinal
section, represent the algebraic sum of
the corrected volumes (cut +, fill ).

Mass Haul Diagram

Mass Haul Diagram