Sie sind auf Seite 1von 51

# 2nd Semester 2008/2009

Introduction

Surveying

## Faculty of Applied Engineering and

Urban Planning
Civil Engineering Department

Areas and
Volumes

Planimeters

Digital Planimeter

Planimeters

## Note : the accuracy of the results

obtained from using planimeter in the
measurement of areas depends mainly
on the original accuracy drawn map, as
well as on the experience of the operator
when tracing boundary of the figure.

Questions?!

Areas
1. Regular Figures

Mathematical Formulae

Method of Coordinates

2. Irregular Figures

Graphical Method

Trapezoidal Rule

## Simpsons One-Third Rule

Mathematical Formulae

1
1
bh or a b sin(C)
2
2

1
h a b
2

a2

a b

1
180
2
n a cot

4
n

1
d2
4

Mathematical Formulae

r r
2
2

2
1

a b

1
2
r
360

2
bh
3

1 2

r
sin
2 180

Mathematical Formulae

20 m

15 m

Questions?!

## Areas by Method of Coordinates

Area = 0.5(| 136840.01 (-84890.94) |)
= 110865.48 ft2

Questions?!

Content
Areas of Irregular Figures
1. Graphical Method
2. Trapezoidal Rule
3. Simspons One-Third Rule

Graphical Method

Trapezoidal Rule

Trapezoidal Rule

Trapezoidal Rule

Example

Offset

Intercept

ONLY

## used with Odd number of offsets

(i.e. Even number of Intercepts)

Example

Area Calculation
Trapezoidal Rule

## Simspons One-Third Rule

Content

Volumes by:
1. Average-End-Area Method
2. Prismoidal Method
3. Contour Maps

## Cut and Fill

Average-End-Area Method

Average-End-Area Method

Prismoidal Method

Questions?!

## Mass Haul Diagram

A mass haul diagram is of great value both in planning
and construction.
The diagram is plotted after the earthwork quantities
have been computed, the ordinates showing
aggregate volumes in cubic metres while the
horizontal base line, plotted to the same scale as the
profile, gives the points at which these volumes
obtain.

## Mass Haul Diagram

Most materials are found to increase in volume after
excavation ('bulking'), but after being re-compacted by
roller or other means, soils in particular might be found
to occupy less volume than originally, i.e. a 'shrinkage'
has taken place when compacted in the in situ volume.

Definitions
(1) Haul refers to the volume of material multiplied by the
distance moved, expressed in station meters'.
(2) Station meter (stn m) is 1 m3 of material moved 100 m,
Thus, 20 m3 moved 1500 m is a haul of 20 1500/100 =
300 stn m.
(3) Waste is the material excavated from cuts but not used for
embankment fills.
(4) Borrow is the material needed for the formation of
embankments, secured not from roadway excavation but
from elsewhere. It is said to be obtained from a borrow pit.
(5) Limit of economical haul is the maximum haul distance.
When this limit is reached it is more economical to waste
and borrow material.

## Excavation of material causes it to loosen,

and thus its excavated volume will be
greater than its in situ volume. However,
when filled and compacted, it may occupy
a less volume than when originally in situ.
For example, light sandy soil is less by
about 11% after filling, whilst large rocks
may bulk by up to 40%.
To allow for this, a correction factor is
generally applied to the cut or fill volumes.

## A MHD is a continuous curve, whose

vertical ordinates, plotted on the same
distance scale as the longitudinal
section, represent the algebraic sum of
the corrected volumes (cut +, fill ).