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Soil Mechanics-II

Earthen Dames
Dr. Attaullah Shah

ground

SIVA

Components of a Dam

Types of Earthen Dams

DAMS
Classifications based on type and materials of construction
Criteria for selection of best dam type:
1. Feasibility
-topography, geology, and climate (& its effect on materials)
2. Cost
-availability of construction materials near the site; accessibility of
transportation facilities
Types
Materials of Construction
A. Gravity

Concrete, rubble masonry

B. Arch

Concrete

C. Buttress

Concrete, also timber & steel

D. Embankment

Earth or rock

Foundation Requirements

Strong foundation

No bearing capacity shear failure

Minimal differential settlement


Sand/Gravel or rock

Low hydraulic conductivity

Silt and/or Clay, non-fractured rock

DAMS
GRAVITY DAMS
Gravity dams are dams which resist the horizontal thrust of the water
entirely by their own weight.
They use their weight to hold back the water in the reservoir.
Can be made of earth or rock fill or concrete.

DAMS

Gravity
-Depends on its own weight for stability
-Usually straight in plan although slightly curved
Forces on Gravity Dam
1. Gravity (weight of dam)
W = Vx
= (volume)(specific weight of material)
(lb) = (ft3)(lb/ft3)
2. Hydrostatic pressure
Hh = h2 / 2 (horizontal component)
where,

(lb/ft) = (lb/ft3) (ft)2 /2


h = depth of water at that section
= specific weight of water

Hv = V / h (vertical component)
Where,

(lb/ft) = (lb/ft3) (ft3) / ft


V = volume of the dam at that point

DAMS
Gravity
Forces on Gravity Dam
3. Uplift
the water under pressure that comes b/t dam and foundation and results
in upward (uplift) forces against the dam
h1 = depth of water @ upstream face, aka heel (higher)
h2 = depth of water@ downstream face, aka toe (lower)
= specific weight of water
t = base thickness of dam.
4. Ice pressure
pressure created by thermal expansion exerts thrust against upstream
face of the dam
5. Earthquake forces
results in inertial forces that include vertical motion, oscillatory
increase, or decrease in hydrostatic pressure (all put force against dam)

DAMS

GRAVITY DAMS
Causes of Failure:
1. Sliding along horizontal plane (shear failure)
net force > shear resistance at that level

2. Rotation about the toe

3. Failure of material

Gravity Dams

DAMS

Friat Dam

DAMS
Gravity Dams

Tygart Dam, West Virginia

DAMS
ARCH DAMS
Curved dam which is dependent upon arch action for its strength.
Transmits most of horizontal water thrust behind them to the abutments by
the arch action.
Thinner and requires less material than any other type of dam.
Used only in narrow canyons.

DAMS
ARCH DAMS
Arch dams includes:
*series of horizontal arches
*series of vertical cantilevers

Load distribution

Most of load carried by

Near bottom of dam

cantilevers

Near top of dam

arches

I. Constant-center (Constant radius)

(Known as Trial Load


Method)

best for U shaped canyons

II. Variable-center (Variable radius, constant-angle) best for V shaped canyons

ARCH DAMS

DAMS

Boundary Dam, Seattle

DAMS
ARCH DAMS

Salmon Creek Dam, Alaska

DAMS
BUTTRESS DAMS
Buttress dams are dams in which the face is held up by a series of supports.
Buttress dams can take many forms -- the face may be flat or curved.
Usually, buttress dams are made of concrete and may be reinforced with steel
bars.

DAMS
BUTTRESS DAMS
sloping membrane that transmits the water load to a series of
buttresses @ right angles to axis of dam
-Increased formwork & reinforced steel compared w/gravity dam
-Less massive than gravity dam (requires 1/3 to 1/2 as much concrete)
-Use on weaker foundation
-Same forces as gravity and arch dams, however, ice pressures not as
prevalent; gaps b/t buttresses relieve majority of uplift forces
Types

Water Supporting Membrane

1. Flat-slab

flat, concrete-reinforced slabs

2. Multiple-arch

series of arches

DAMS
BUTTRESS DAMS

Daniel-Johnson Dam, Quebec

DAMS
BUTTRESS DAMS

Bartlett Dam, Colorado

DAMS
EMBANKMENT DAMS
Embankment dams are massive dams made of earth or rock.
They rely on their weight to resist the flow of water, just like concrete gravity
dams.

DAMS
EMBANKMENT DAMS
Types:
1. Simple Embankment (homogeneous throughout)
(upstream less permeable material)

2. Impervious Foundation

3. Impervious Core (Zoned embankments)

DAMS
EMBANKMENT DAMS
Generally have some sort of water proof insides (called the core), which is covered
with earth or rock fill. Water will seep in through the
earth or rock fill,
but should not seep into the core. The water will
seep into the core material
and should stop at the seepage line.

Forces on Embankment Dams:


1. Force of the water (main force)
2. Uplift force

DAMS
EMBANKMENT DAMS

Wolf Creek Dam, Nashville

DAMS
COFFER DAMS
temporary structures (sheet-pile, water-tight) that allow
construction operations
diverts flow from construction areas until work completed

Hoover Dam
726.4 feet high ..

1,244 feet across at the top ..

660 feet thick at the base ..

45 feet thick at the top ..

weighs 6.6 millions ton ...

17 generators giving it the capacity to


produce over 2,000 megawatts

can store up 2 years 'average' flow from the Colorado River ...
total storage capacity can be measured in 30,500,000 acre feet ...

Hoover Dam