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# CELLS AND

BATTERIES
By:

## MOHD SHAHAROM BIN IDRIS

JKE, PTSS

CHAPTER OUTLINE
Understanding the relationship between cells
and batteries.
Understanding the cells that connected in series,
parallel and series-parallel.

WHAT IS CELL?

## the term cell is used when a single electrical

cells connected only itself to provide a source
of a potential difference in a circuit

WHAT IS BATTERY?

## the term battery is used when several

electrical cells are connected together to
provide a source of a potential difference in a
circuit.
battery is any device that converts chemical
energy into electrical energy

AND BATTERIES

## The primary difference between a battery and a cell is

that a battery can be composed of a number of cells.
A cell can be a battery. Big flashlights sometimes use
"D" cells or "D" batteries as a power source. But a car
has a 12 volt battery (that sits at over 13 volts when it's
fully charged) and it is composed of 6 individual cells.
Generally, a cell delivers a certain voltage that is a
function of what chemical reactions are taking place to
generate the voltage. To get increased voltage one must
add cells in series. The 9-volt batteries like the ones used
in smoke detectors have 6 individual cells inside them.

## A battery is essentially a can full of chemicals that

produce electrons. Chemical reactions that produce
electrons are calledelectrochemical reactions.
If you look at any battery, you'll notice that it hastwo
terminals. One terminal is marked (+), or positive,
while the other is marked (-), or negative. In an AA, C
or D cell (normal flashlight batteries), the ends of the
battery are the terminals. In a large car battery, there
are two heavy lead posts that act as the terminals.

## Electronscollect on the negative terminal of the

battery. If you connect a wire between the negative and
positive terminals, the electrons will flow from the
negative to the positive terminal as fast as they can
(and wear out the battery very quickly -- this also
tends to be dangerous, especially with large batteries,
so it is not something you want to be doing). Normally,
you connect some type ofloadto the battery using the
wire. The load might be something like alight bulb, a
motoror an electronic circuit like aradio.

## Inside the battery itself, a chemical reaction produces the

electrons. The speed of electron production by this chemical
reaction (the battery'sinternal resistance) controls how
many electrons can flow between the terminals.
Electrons flow from the battery into a wire, and must travel
from the negative to the positive terminal for the
chemical reaction to take place.

## That is why a battery can sit on a shelf for a year

and still have plenty of power -- unless electrons
are flowing from the negative to the positive
terminal, the chemical reaction does not take
place. Once you connect a wire, the reaction
starts. The ability to harness this sort of
reactionstarted with the voltaic pile.

PRIMARY CELLS

## Primary cells cannot be recharged, that is, the

conversion of chemical energy to electrical energy
is irreversible and the cell cannot be used once
the chemicals are exhausted. Examples of
primary cells include the Leclanche cell and the
mercury cell.

SECONDARY CELLS
Secondary cells can be recharged after use, t
ht is, the conversion of chemical energy to
electrical energy is reversible and the cell may be
used many times. Examples of secondary cells
include the lead-acid cell and the alkaline cell.
Practical applications of such cells include car
batteries, telephone circuits and for traction
purposes.

## DIFFERENCE BETWEEN PRIMARY AND

SECONDARY CELLS
Primary

Secondary

Dischargeonceonly

Rechargeable

Internalstructureismoresimple

Internalstructureis morecomplex

biggerqualityratioandvolumerati
o

Lowerqualityratioandvolumerati
o

Biggerimpedance

Lowerimpedance

Lower self-discharge

Higher self-discharge

Wet cell
Dry cell
Carbon-Zinc cell
Alkaline cell

## THE EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT

CELLS CONNECTIONS

## The battery can be connected in series, parallel

or series-parallel.

INTERNAL RESISTANCE

## The voltage available at the terminals of a cell

falls when a load is connected. This is caused by
the internal resistance of the cell which is the
opposition of the material of the cell to the flow of
current. The internal resistance acts in series
with other resistances in the circuit. Figure 1
shows a cell of e.m.f. E volts and internal
resistance, r, and XY represents the terminals of
the cell.

Fig. 1

BATTERY IN SERIES

## A series circuit is a circuit where there is only

one path from the source through all of the loads
and back to the source. This means that all of the
current in the circuit must flow through all of the

## Total e.m.f. = sum of cells e.m.f.s

Total internal resistance = sum of cells internal
resistances

V1

V2

V3

VT = V1+V2+V3

BATTERY IN PARALLEL

## A parallel circuit is a circuit in which there are at least two

independent paths in the circuit to get back to the source.
In a parallel circuit, the current will flow through the
closed paths and not through the open paths.
If each cell has the same e.m.f. and internal resistance:
Total e.m.f. = e.m.f. of one cell
Total internal resistance of n cells
= 1 x internal resistance of one cell
n

V1

V2

V3

VT=V1=V2=V3

BATTERY IN SERIES-PARALLEL

## Figure 2 illustrates a parallel/serial connection.

This allows good design flexibility and attains the
wanted voltage and current ratings by using a
standard cell size. It should be noted that the
total power does not change with different
configurations. The power is the product of
voltage times current.
V1
V3

V2
V4