Sie sind auf Seite 1von 22

Imunitas pada kulit

dr. Rohmania Setiarini

Pathogens
(such as bacteria,
fungi, and viruses)

INNATE IMMUNITY
(all animals)
Recognition of traits shared
by broad ranges of
pathogens, using a small
set of receptors
Rapid response

ADAPTIVE IMMUNITY
(vertebrates only)
Recognition of traits
specific to particular
pathogens, using a vast
array of receptors
Slower response

Barrier defenses:
Skin
Mucous membranes
Secretions
Internal defenses:
Phagocytic cells
Natural killer cells
Antimicrobial proteins
Inflammatory response
Humoral response:
Antibodies defend against
infection in body fluids.
Cell-mediated response:
Cytotoxic cells defend
against infection in body cells.

Immunity
Innate & Adaptive
First

line of
defense
Nonspecific
Rapid onset
No protective
immunity
No memory
Phagocytemediated

Activated
Very specific
Slower
Protective

immunity possible
Memory possible
Lymphocytemediated

Immune Responses

Antibody Concentration

Section 40-2

Interval
between
exposures
First
exposur
e

Second
exposur
e

Time

Roles of the Skin

The skin or integumentary system has four roles


It acts as a barrier against infection and injury
It helps to regulate body temperature
It removes waste products from the body
Provides protection against UV radiation from the
sun
It also serves as a way through which sensations
are transmitted to the nervous system

The immune system protects organisms


Most simply, 1. physical barriers prevent pathogens such as
bacteria and viruses from entering the body
If a pathogen breaches these barriers, the 2. innate immune
system provides an immediate, but non-specific response
If pathogens successfully evade the innate response, vertebrates
possess a third layer of protection, the 3. adaptive immune
system
Here, the immune system adapts its response during an infection to improve

its recognition of the pathogen


This improved response is then retained after the pathogen has been
eliminated, in the form of an immunological memory, and allows the
adaptive immune system to mount faster and stronger attacks each time this
pathogen is encountered

Innate Immune Features of the Skin


Cells
Phagocytes: Macrophages, neutrophils, NK

cells
Mast cells

Circulating chemicals
Complement

Locally produced chemicals


Cytokines, histamine

Mast Cells

Bone marrow-derived
Dermal resident
Perivascular
Mediators
Preformed (histamine, e.g.)
Newly synthesized (cytokines,

e.g.)

Cells of the Cutaneous Adaptive Immune


Response
Langerhans cell
Dermal dendrocytes
Keratinocytes
T-cells
Endothelial cells

Langerhans Cells
Bone marrow-derived
Monocyte lineage

Transient epidermal cells


Dendritic cell
Electron microscopy: Birbeck granules,
convoluted nucleus

Langerhans Cells:
Epidermal Transients
Migration and maturation
Bone marrow Blood
Epidermis (LC)
Afferent lymph Lymph node
Functions
Antigen capture and processing
Presentation of antigen
Costimulation of nave T-cells
Produce activating cytokines

Antigen

Langerhans
Cell Migration

Keratinocytes As
Immune Cells
Old view: Keratinocytes...
Are passive barrier cells
Are passive victims of immune attack

Keratinocytes As
Immune Cells
Newer view: Keratinocytes...
Produce cytokines
e.g., IL-1, TNF-, Chemokines

Respond to cytokines
e.g., IFN, IL-1

Upregulate ICAM-1
Present antigen
Antimicrobial peptide

Endothelial Cells &


Cutaneous Inflammation
Increase permeability
When activated, endothelial cells...
cell surface expression of P-selectin
for enhanced leukocyte margination
synthesis & expression of E-selectin
for selective T-cell (CLA +) homing to
the skin
expression of VCAM-1 & ICAM-1
to stop leukocytes and allow diapedesis

Immune response amplified

Cutaneous Lymphocyte Antigen


(CLA)
Specific skin homing marker on T-cells
CLA+ lymphocytes are memory/effector cells
(CD45RO +)
Cell adhesion to endothelial cell
E-selectin is ligand

With cutaneous inflammation, E-selectin upregulated, CLA+ cells selected

The Skin Immune System


Components
1. APCs: Langerhans cells, dermal
dendrocytes, dermal macrophages
2. Keratinocytes
3. Endothelial cells
4. Skin-homing T-cells
5. Draining regional lymph vessels and nodes

Immune-response elements in
non-inflamed skin.

Innate immune mechanisms in


the skin

Adaptive immune
responses in the
skin

Immune-surveillance
mechanisms in the skin