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SHRI VAISHANAV INSTITUTE OF

TECNOLOGY AND SCIENCE

Near field communication


Submitted By:

Submitted To:

DIVYA SOLANKI
DEEPIKA GUPTA

Ms. Rashmi Gome

Contents

Introduction
History
Evolution
Essential Specification
Comparison
Overviews of the process
Operation of NFC
Applications
Advantages and disadvantages
Future of NFC
Conclusion

INTRODUCTION
Near field communication(NFC) is a set of standards
forsmartsphonesand similar devices to establish
radiocommunication with each other by touching them
together or bringing them into close proximity, usually no
more than a few centimetres. Present and anticipated
applications include contactless transactions, data
exchange, and simplified setup of more complex
communications such asWi-Fi.
NFC is a short-range wireless technology.
NFC provides unique advantages over other available
wireless technologies.
The design includes a near-field transmitter and receiver
to send data from one computer to another

NFC is mainly aimed for mobile or


handheld devices.
NFC is an extension of Radio frequency
identification or RFID technology.
RFID is mainly used for tracking and
identification by sending radio waves.
Enables the exchange of data between
devices over a distance of up to 20
centimeters.(4 cm Practically)

HISTORY
1983 The first patent to be associated with the
abbreviationRFIDwas granted to Charles Walton.
2004 Nokia, Philips and Sony established the Near Field
Communication (NFC) Forum
2006 Initial specifications for NFC Tags
2006Nokia 6131was the first NFC phone
2009 In January, NFC Forum released Peer-to-Peer standards to
transfer contact, URL, initiate Bluetooth, etc.
2010 Samsung Nexus S: First Android NFC phone shown
2011 Google I/O "How to NFC" demonstrates NFC to initiate a game
and to share a contact, URL, app, video, etc.
2011 NFC support becomes part of theSymbianmobile operating
systemwith the release of Symbian Anna version.
2011 RIM is the first company for its devices is certified by
MasterCard Worldwide, the functionality of PayPass

EVOLUTION
In 2004, NFC Forum was formed by Nokia, Philips,
Sony,to set standards for NFC . Every NFC
enabled device will have N-Mark trademark
,developed by NFC Forum.
First mobile phone( nokia 6131) with NFC
released by NOKIA.

N MARK TRADEMARK
NOKIA 6131

In 2010

First android phone SAMSUNG NEXUS S with NFC


support released.

ESSENTIAL SPECIFICATIONS
NFC is a set of short-range wireless technologies,
typically requiring a distance of 4cm or less.
NFC operates at 13.56MHzon ISO/IEC 18000-3 air
interface and at rates ranging from 106 Kbit/s to
424 Kbit/s.
Supported data rates: 106, 212 or 424kbit/s
NFC employs two differentcodlingsto transfer data.
If an active device transfers data at 106 kbit/s, a
modifiedMiller codingwith 100%modulationis
used. In all other cases Manchester codingis used
with a modulation ratio of 10%.

COMPARISON WITH OTHER


TECHNOLOGIES

Overview of the process.


Transmitter

PC interface (MAX232A)
Voltage-Controlled Oscillator (POS+25)
Power Amplifier (LM6181)
Loop Antenna

Receiver

Loop Antenna
Amplifier (LM6181)
Phase Lock Loop (NE564)
PC interface (MAX232A)

Eventual process (Diagram)

Modulation/Demodulation
VCO produces a frequency-modulated signal at
the transmitter
Phase lock loop demodulates the signal at the
receiver.

PC Interface
Connects through serial
cable
Received by MAX232A
0 to 5V square wave
Voltage divider
Non-inverting voltage
adder

Voltage Controlled Oscillator


Operates on a 12-V power supply
Accepts an input from 3.7V to 4.2V from the PC
interface.
Outputs a signal whose frequency varies
according to the input voltage level

VCO OUTPUT

Power Amplifier
Accepts an input from the VCO
Outputs the signal to the loop antenna
Power gain of approximately 11dB

AMPLIFIER
INPUT/OUTPUT

Phase Lock Loop


Tracks the frequency and phase of the
input
Frequency of an signal changes according
to the data bits; therefore, PLL can
demodulate an FSK signal.
Output is the VCO control voltage.

Band Pass Filters


Pass-band of 2-3MHz
Tuned to 10MHz and
13.5MHz
Signal did not decay fast
enough outside of the passband

OPERATION OF NFC
Near field communication is based on
inductive-coupling.
NFC works using magnetic induction
between two loop antennas located within
each other's 'near field.

HOW IT WORKS
In the reader (phone) , when the NFC in the
device is active then it continuously generates
periodic sine wave signal at frequency 13.56 MHz
center frequency.
tag gets energy from the magnetic fluxes and
create counter frequency
The changes are detected by the phone and
phone knows that there is a tag nearby.
RFID systems communicating on very short range
are commonly known as close couple systems.
Range 0 to 1 cm.

This means that the tag has to be placed either in


the reader or more or less pressed against the
reader device.
The benefit from these short distances is that a
rather large amount of energy can be extracted
from the magnetic field by the tag.
Close coupling is also preferred for systems with
high security requirements.

MODES
PASSIVE
ACTIVE
OF OPERATION
MODE
MODE

ACTIVE MODE
Both initiator and target device communicate by
alternately generating their own fields. A device
deactivates its RF field while it is waiting for data.
In this mode, both devices typically have power
supplies.

PASSIVE MODE
The initiator device provides a carrier fields and
the target device answers by modulating the
existing field. In this mode, the target device may
draw its operating power from the initiatorprovided electromagnetic field.

USAGE OF NFC DEVICES

CARD EMULATION MODE


The NFC device behaves as a contactless smart
card.
The external card reader accesses the secure
elements of the device, such as Universal
Subscriber Identity Module (USIM) and embedded
Secure Element (eSE), that are compatible with
the contactless card technology.
This enables contactless payments and ticketing
by NFC enabled phones without changing the
existing infrastructure. Mobile payment, ticketing
access control etc are use case of this category.

PEER TO PEER MODE


In this mode two NFC enabled devices can
exchange data with each other.
Both devices take part in the communication.
One example could be business card exchange.
Another example could be pairing Bluetooth
headset with the help of NFC enabled phone.
Third example could be NFC chat application
where two phones can take part in data exchange
as specified by NFC forum.

READER WRITER MODE


In this use case, NFC enabled device (for example
mobile phones) can read or write data to NFC
tag.
NFC enabled smart poster is one example. Inside
the poster there is embedded NFC tag where
more information is written about the product.
Device and read and act accordingly what is
written in the tag.

APPLICATIONS
Commerce: NFC devices can be used in
contactless payment systems, similar to those
currently used in credit cards and electronic ticket
smartcards, and allow mobile payment to replace
or supplement these systems.
Social networking: Sharing contacts, photos,
videos or files , and entering multiplayer mobile
games in the field of social networking it is very
useful to exchange the contacts & other files.
Smartphone automation and NFC tags : Smart
phones equipped with NFC can be paired with
NFC tags or stickers which can be programmed
by NFC apps to automate tasks.

ANDROID BEAM
Android Beam is a feature of the Android mobile
operating system to allow data to be transferred
via near field communication (NFC) .
It allows the rapid short-range exchange of web
bookmarks, contact info, directions, YouTube
videos, and other data. Android Beam was
introduced in Android version 4.0 (Ice Cream
Sandwich).

GOOGLE WALLET
Google Wallet is a mobile payment system
developed by Google that allows its users to store
debit cards, credit cards, loyalty cards, and gift
cards among other things, as well as redeeming
sales promotions on their mobile phone.
Google Wallet can use near field communication
(NFC) to "make secure payments fast and
convenient by simply tapping the phone on any
PayPass-enabled terminal at checkout.

SECURIT Y ASPECTS
Eavesdropping: The RF signal for the wireless
data transfer can be picked up with antennas.
The distance from which an attacker is able to
eavesdrop the RF signal depends on numerous
parameters, but is typically a small number of
meters.
Data modification: It is easy to destroy data by
using a jammer. There is no way currently to
prevent such an attack.
Lost property: Losing the NFC RFID card or the
mobile phone will open access to any finder and
act as a single-factor authenticating entity. Mobile
phones protected by a PIN code acts as a single
authenticating factor.

ADVANTAGES
High convenience to the user,
because the data exchange is done
by bringing two mobiles together.
Versatility
Reduces cost of electronic issuance .
Secure communication.
No special software.
No search and pair procedure.

DISADVANTAGES
The system has the limitation that it can
be operated only with devices under a
short range i.e around 10 cm.
The data transfer rate is very less at about
106kbps, 212 kbps and 424kbps.
Can be costly for merchant companies to
initially adopt the technology.

FUTURE OF NFC
New generations of iPhone, iPod and iPad
products would reportedly be equipped
with NFC capability which would enable
small-scale monetary transactions.
On May 2, 2011, RIM announced the
Blackberry Bold 9900, a new device that
will use NFC technology.
Recently, Microsoft announced that all
Windows Phone 8 devices will make use of
the NFC technology.

CONCLUSION
Mobile handsets are the primary target for
NFC and soon NFC will be implemented in
most handheld devices. Even though NFC
have the shortest range among radio
frequency technologies, combining them
with existing technologies like Bluetooth or
Infrared can increase its range of
applications.