Sie sind auf Seite 1von 32

Current guidance and good practice

Ground gas risk assessment


Hugh Mallett
Buro Happold

Ground gases Guidance & good practice


Contents
1. Guiding principles
2. Investigation & monitoring
3. Data, risk assessment tools & remedial strategy
4. Case study
5. Conclusions

Ground gases Guidance & good practice


Guiding Principles

Its the economy, stupid

Ground gases Guidance & good practice


Guiding Principles

Its the Conceptual Site Model, stupid

Ground gases Guidance & good practice


Guiding Principles

Figure 1.

The Process of Managing Risks Related to Hazardous Ground Gases

Site Characterisation

Assessment of Risk

Define the context & set the objectives

Determination / Validation
of Remediation
Identify remedial
objectives to mitigate
unacceptable risks

Review data

Carry out Phase One Desk Study

Identify feasible remedial options

Is data reliable?
(e.g. appropriate
response zones,
variable/ unrepresentative
groundwater levels)

Develop initial conceptual site model


& undertake preliminary risk assessment

Phased assessment process

No
Undertake
additional
intrusive
investigations

Yes

Has development of model


included site specific factors
that may influence
gas/vapour regime

No

Has monitoring
been carried out
under varying
conditions likely
to influence the gas
vapour regime?

No

Undertake
additional
intrusive
investigations
and/ or
monitoring
& sampling

Yes

Accords with CLR 11. Set out in C665

Yes

No

Results sufficiently
consistent/ reliable?

Detailed evaluation of remedial


options

Source(s) of
gas(es)/ vapour(s)
identified?

No
Develop a remedial strategy

Yes

Yes

No

Design, implementation &


verification of
remedial measures

No

Extent of
source(s) established?
Yes

Are there potential


unacceptable risks?

Refine conceptual site model


No

Stage 1: Site characterisation


Stage 2: Assessment of risk

Consider odour & toxicity and


incorporate
into risk assessment as appropriate

Yes

Review/
amend
remedial
strategy

Is post installation/
construction
monitoring required?

Yes

Identify further actions to clarify


potential unacceptable risks

Undertake appropriate risk


assessment modelling. Define gas
regime

Undertake post installation/


construction monitoring

Establish objectives of any


further investigations
Green

Amber

Red
Is the monitoring
data acceptable?

Carry out further investigation


[desk based/intrusive/ Monitoring]
No

Stage 3: Determination/ validation of


remediation

No

Yes
Yes

Have these factors


identified the
potential presence
of gas/vapour?

No

Illustrates principal stages of assessing


risks presented by LFG

Has sufficient
data been
obtained to allow
the selection/ design
of appropriate
remedial
solutions?

Does risk
assessment
demonstrate
corrective action
required?

Yes
Completion/Validation Report

Yes

NO FURTHER
ACTION REQUIRED

NO FURTHER
ACTION REQUIRED

NO FURTHER
ACTION REQUIRED

No

Ground gases Guidance & good practice


Guiding Principles

Published Guidance
The age of enlightenment ?
CIRIA 149.

DETR [PIT]
BRE 414
CIRIA 149
NHBC.
BS8485
Ground Gas Handbook

Good practice in ground gas risk


assessment
2. Guidance - Investigation & monitoring

Ground gases Guidance & good practice

Phase 1 - Desk Study


Objectives
Information sources
Initial conceptual site model
Preliminary risk assessment

Ground gases Guidance & good practice


Phase 2 - Intrusive investigation
Objectives
Exploration techniques
[intrusive & non intrusive]
Spacing
Design of response zone
Phasing

Ground gases Guidance & good practice


Phase 2 - Monitoring
Monitoring: frequency/ period
Well defined protocol
Correct kit
Falling / low pressure
Comprehensive data
Monitoring pro forma
Intelligent recording

Ground gases Guidance & good practice


Phase 2 - Sampling
Sample & analysis
Lab data
confirms field results
type source
Sampling protocol)
Lab techniques
(GC, ICAMS, carbon dating etc.)

Good practice in ground gas risk


assessment
3. Data, risk assessment tools & remedial
design

Ground gases Guidance & good practice

Data assessment
Reliability
Temporal variability
Consistency
Source identified
Source extent defined

Ground gases Guidance & good practice


Data assessment
Defined thresholds
Gas Screening Values [GSVs]
Qualifying Criteria
Flow rate measurement
Temporal resolution of discrete
measurements
Uncertainty

Ground gases Guidance & good practice


Risk assessment tools
Guidance
GQRA [CIRIA 552]
Modified Wilson & Card
[CIRIA C665]
NHBC
BS8485

Inconsistency & confusion?

Ground gases Guidance & good practice


Risk assessment tools
Guidance
Guidance:
Advice / information aimed at resolving
a problem, difficulty
Commandment:
Divine formal order or instruction to
obey
Sensible application of guidance by
experienced professionals
Challenge the data to make informed
judgement

Ground gases Guidance & good practice


Risk assessment tools
CIRIA C665 & NHBC
Calculate GSVs
Determine Characteristic Situation
Limiting values
Consider modifying factors
Robustness of data
Source characterisation
Flow rates
Development type
Generic scope protection measures

Ground gases Guidance & good practice


Risk assessment
tools
BS8485.

CS

Private
housing

Public
buildings

Commercial

Industrial

GSV and CS

Development Sensitivity

Determine remedial

measures scores

5
6

Ground gases Guidance & good practice


Risk assessment tools
BS8485.
Achieve score by
Combination of;
1.

Venting/ dilution

2.

Barriers

3.

Membranes

4.

Monitoring & detection

5.

Pathway intervention

Ground gases Guidance & good practice


Risk assessment tools
BS8485.
Tables 2 & 3 - arbitrary
Consider moderating factors
(Annex B)
Location of source
Consistency of source
Risk rating of gas regime
Pathway permeability
Foundation conditions
Complexity of substructure
Validation of installed measures
Maintenance requirements
End use sensitivity
Use BS scores sensibly

What else can we do?

Ground gases Guidance & good practice


Risk assessment tools
Site specific
modification
Void space
Development type
Footprint
Vulnerable space
Maximum concentrations
Foundation solution
etc

Ground gases Guidance & good practice


Risk assessment tools
Mathematical models - Source
1. EA Gas Generation
[Q=10MT/8760 m3/hr]
2. Surface emission (Peckson)
[Borehole emission rate l/hr/10=surface
emission rate l/m2/hr]
3. Atmospheric pressure drop
P1.V1=P2.V2 [Boyles Law]
4. Gas Sim
Source term; emission; migration;
exposure
Ref CIRIA C655 Appendix 5

Ground gases Guidance & good practice


Risk assessment tools
Mathematical models - ventilation
Ventilation capacity of void space
BS5925:1991 Building Regulations

Ventilation capacity of void former


Ventilation capacity of active system
Darcys Law

Ground Gas Handbook

Good practice in ground gas risk


assessment
3. Case study

Ground gases Guidance & good practice


Site in East London

7m Made Ground

13 standpipes

Majority 2 readings

Elevated gas 50% occasions

CH4 7%; CO2 12%; Flow 1l/hr

GSV 0.05 CS1

Ground gases Guidance & good practice


But

Very limited data set

50% readings > limiting criteria

Gas more elevated in east ?

Thickness/ nature of MG

Sensitivity of development

Determine Design classification as CS2


(west zone) and CS3 to east

Ground gases Guidance & good practice


Gas Protection measures
1.CIRIA Slab, membrane +venting
2.BS 8485. Score 3.5 against target 2.
3.Check ventilation
a) Required flow 60m3/hr
[Darcy Equil Conc <1%]
b) Reqd ventilation area
5+70mm2/m
[B Regs 1500mm2/m]
Min spacing of vents = 45m
Risk dead spots
Design spacing 25m
c) Flow thro void former
30x > reqd flow.
4. Peer review
5. Scrutiny by LPA expert

Ground gases Guidance & good practice


Series of Electricity Sub Stations
1.GSV 2.2 (methane) - CS2/3
2.Standard GRP enclosure
3.Massive concrete slab (part)
4.Service entries in side wall
5.Ventilation for cooling
6.Spark suppression
7.GSV & emission rate
8.>>Building Regs ventilation rate
9.Time to reach 5% CH4 in still conditions
10.Ventilation requirement vs ventilation
achieved by standard construction
No specific additional gas protection
Approved by LPA expert

Ground gases Guidance & good practice


After all of this
investigation, data
collection and complex
risk assessment

Do not forget the importance of verification

Ground gases Guidance & good practice


Verification
The QA / inspection process
Contractor employed specialist
supplier and installer
Check sheet system
Prior to concrete pour
Each section
Inspected & Signed off by:
Installer
Buro Happold
Main Contractor
Check Sheets and photographic
record Appendix in verification
report

Ground gases Guidance & good practice


Concluding comments
1. Understanding CSM is critical
2. Reliable data key component
3. Generic models site specific
modification
4. Combine systems to achieve BS score
5. Math tools aid understanding/ increase
confidence. A tool to help you make the
decision.
6. Site verification
7. Application requires thought
[The strength of the Guidance is that it
still relies upon judgement]

Ground gases Guidance & good practice


References
1. CIRIA 149. 1995. Protecting development from methane
2. DETR [PIT] 1997. Passive venting of soil gases beneath buildings
3. BRE 414. 2001. Protective measures for housing on gas contaminated land
4. CIRIA C665. 2007. Assessing risks posed by hazardous ground gases to
buildings
5. NHBC. 2007. Guidance on evaluation of development proposals in sites where
methane and carbon dioxide are present
6. BS8485. 2007. Code of practice for the characterisation and remediation from
ground gas in affected developments
7. Wilson Card & Haines. 2008. The Ground Gas Handbook