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High fuel efficiency.

Decreased emissions.
No need of fossil
fuels.
Less overall vehicle
weight.
Regenerative braking

Toyota Prius
Honda Insight
Honda
Civic(hybrid

Fuel tank

Body chassis

Energy management
& system control
Accessories

Energy
Storage
unit

Hybrid
Power
unit

Traction
motor

Thermal
Management
system

HEVs will contain a


mix of aluminum,
steel, plastic,
magnesium, and
composites (typically
a strong, lightweight
material composed of
fibers in a binding
matrix, such as
fiberglass).

Ultra capacitors
are higher
specific energy
and power
versions of
electrolytic
capacitors
devices that
store energy as

Lead acid batteries,


used currently in
many electric
vehicles, are
potentially usable
in hybrid
applications. Lead
acid batteries can
be designed to be

Flywheels store kinetic


energy within a rapidly
spinning wheel-like rotor
or disk. Ultimately,
flywheels could store
amounts of energy
comparable to batteries.
They contain no acids or
other potentially
hazardous materials.
Flywheels are not
affected by temperature

Fuel cells offer highly


efficient and fuelflexible power
systems with low to
zero emissions for
future HEV designs.
There are a variety
of thermal issues to
be addressed in the
development and

Spark ignition
engine mixes fuel
and air in a prechamber. Throttle
and heat losses,
which occur as
the fuel mixture
travels from prechamber into the

A Compression
Ignition engine
achieves combustion
through compression
without use of
sparkplug. It becomes
CIDI engine when it is
enhanced with direct

Motors are the "work horses" of HEV


drive systems. In an HEV, an electric
traction motor converts electrical
energy from the energy storage unit to
mechanical energy that drives the
wheels of the vehicle. Unlike a
traditional vehicle, where the engine
must "ramp up" before full torque can
be provided, an electric motor
provides full torque at low speeds.
This characteristic gives the vehicle
excellent "off the line" acceleration.

As emissions
standards tighten
and exhaust control
technologies
improve, the issue
of evaporative
emissions becomes
increasingly
important. Thermal

60% to 80% of amiss


ions in an autos
typical driving cycle
comes from cold start
emissions, that is,
pollutants that are
emitted before the
catalytic converter is
hot enough to begin

Heat recovered from


any of the above
sources can be used in
a variety of ways. For
winter driving, heat
recovery from HEV
sources such as the
power unit exhaust,
propulsion motors,
batteries, and power

HEVs are now at the forefront


of transportation technology
development. Hybrids have
the potential to allow
continued growth in the
automotive sector, while also
reducing critical resource
consumption, dependence on
foreign oil, air pollution, and
traffic congestion.