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# MATRIX ALGEBRA

Matrices
Matrices
Geometric Concept
2

S=T+X
or
S=TX

Multiplication

4
Translation
Scaling
Rotation

Matrix Algebra

Definitions
Operations

Definition - scalar

## a scalar is a real number

Ex: 1,3, 5.5,

Matrix
A matrix is an array of numbers
a11 , , a1n
a , , a
2n
A 21
a ij

a
,

,
a
mn
m1
Denoted by Capital letters
All matrices have an order (or dimension):
that is, the number of rows the number of
columns. So, A is m by n or (m n).

2 1

1.A = 0 5
4 8
Dimension: 3x2

0 5 3 1
3. C =

2 0 9 6

1
2
2.B =
3

4
Dimension: 4x1

Dimension: 2x4

Definitions

## A square matrix - a matrix that has the

same number of rows and columns (n
n).

one column.

row.

Matrix Equality

## they both have the same number of rows

and the same number of columns
their corresponding elements are equal

2x y
1.

2x 3y 12

## * Since the matrices

are equal, the
corresponding
elements are equal!
* Form two linear
equations.

2x y
2x 3y 12

3
x
2
y 3

## Example 03: Find the values for x and y

3x y x 3
2.

2y
y

3x y x 3
x 2y y 2

x 1
y 1

Matrix Operations

Transposition
Scalar Multiplication
Matrix Multiplication
Inversion

T
A

## The transpose of a matrix is a new

matrix that is formed by interchanging
the rows and columns of the original
matrix.

## The transpose of A is denoted by AT

Example of a transpose

Thus,
a11 a12
A a21 a22
a a
31 32

a11

a12

a21
a22

a31
a32

## Two matrices can be added (or

subtracted) iff they are in the same
order.

## Simply add (or subtract) the

corresponding elements. So, A + B = C
yields.

(cont.)
a11
a
21
a31

a12

a22
a32

b21 b22 a21 b21
b31 b32 a31 b31

## If A [aij ]mn , B [bij ]mn

Then A B [aij ]mn [bij ]mn [aij bij ]mn

a12 b12

a22 b22
a32 b32

1 2 1 3 1 1 2 3 0 5
0 1 1 2 0 1 1 2 1 3

1 1
1 1
0
3 3 3 3 0

2 2
0
2 2

Scalar Multiplication

## To multiply a scalar times a matrix,

simply multiply each element of the
matrix by the scalar quantity.
a11 a12 ka11 ka12

## If A [aij ]mn , k : scalar

Then kA [kaij ]mn

Matrix subtraction:
A B A (1) B

## Example 04: (Scalar multiplication and matrix

subtraction)
4
0 0
1 2
2
A 3 0 1
B 1 4 3

2
3 2
2 1
1
Find (a) 3A (b) B (c) 3A B

Solution:
(a)
3A 3

(b)

1 2 4 31 3 2
3 4 3 6 12
3 0 1 3 3 3 0 3 1 9 0 3

2 1 2 3 2 31
3 2 6 3
6

0
0
0 0
2
2
4 3
B 1 1 4 3 1

1 3 2
3 2
1

(c)
3A B

1 6 12
3 6 12 2
0 0
9 0 3 1 4 3 10 4 6

4
6 3
6 1
3 2 7 0

Matrix Multiplication

## In order to multiply matrices, number of

columns in the first matrix must equal
number of rows in the second matrix.

A
Ex.

B =

mxn nx
p

mxp

## Can you multiply? What will the

A
B
AB
dimensions
be?
2x3
3x4
2x4
A
5x3

B
5x2

AB

AB
Not
possible

How to multiply...

a
a
b c d = c

2x
1

1x
2

2x2

How to multiply...

a
a
b c d = c
b

bd

2x
1

1x
2

2x2

Thus

where

## a11 a12 a13 b11 b12 c11 c12

a a
x b b c

a
c
23
21 22
21 22 21 22
a31 a32 a33 b31 b32 c31 c32
c11 a11b11 a12 b21 a13b31
c12 a11b12 a12 b22 a13b32
c 21 a21b11 a22 b21 a23b31
c 22 a21b12 a22 b22 a23b32
c31 a31b11 a32 b21 a33b31
c32 a31b12 a32 b22 a33b32

Example 05

1
5

-1(4)+5(6) -1(-3)+5(8)
5(4)+2(6)
0(4)+(-4)6

5(-3)+2(8 =
)
0(-3)+(4)8
26 43
32

-24 -32

5 4 3

2 6 8
4

-4+
3+
30
40
20+12 -15+
16
0 -24
0 -32

3 9 2
2.

5 7 6

2 1

3 4

Dimensions: 2 x 3
2x
2
Multiplication is not defined
1 2 1
3. 1 3 2
2 6 1

x 1
y 7

z 8

x 2y z 1
x 3y 2z 7
2x 6y z 8

Special matrices

Diagonal
Null
Identity

Diagonal Matrix

## A diagonal matrix is a square matrix that

has values on the diagonal with all offdiagonal entities being zero.
a11 0
0 a
22

0
0

0
0

0
0
a33
0

0
0
0

a44

Identity Matrix

## An identity matrix is a diagonal matrix

where all diagonal elements equal one.
I=

1
0

0
1
0
0

0
0
1
0

0
0
0

A I = A= I A

## A square matrix where all elements equal

zero.
0
0

0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0

0
0
0

Properties
Properties of matrix addition and scalar
multiplication:
If A, B, C M , c, d : scalars
mn

## Then (1) A+B = B + A

(2) A + ( B + C ) = ( A + B ) + C
(3) ( cd ) A = c ( dA )
(4) 1A = A
(5) c( A+B ) = cA + cB
(6) ( c+d ) A = cA + dA

## Properties of zero matrices:

If A M mn ,

c : scalar

Then (1) A 0 mn A

(2) A ( A) 0 mn
(3) cA 0 mn c 0 or A 0 mn
Note:
(1)0mn: the additive identity for the set of all
mn matrices
(2)A: the additive inverse of A

Properties of transposes:

(1) ( AT )T A

(2) ( A B )T AT B T
(3) (cA)T c( AT )
(4) ( AB )T B T AT

Example 06:
0 1 2
If A a 0 3 is a skew-symmetric, find a,

b c 0 b, c?

Sol:
0 1 2
A a 0 3
b c 0

0 a b
AT 1 0 c

2 3 0

A AT a 1, b 2, c 3

Example 07:
Show thatAAT

is symmetric

## Poof ( AAT )T ( AT )T AT AAT

:
AAT is symmetric

Real number:
ab =
(Commutative law for
ba
multiplication)
Matrix:
AB BA
mn n p

Three situations:
(1) If m p, then AB is defined, BA is undefined.
(2) If m p, m n, then AB M mm , BA M nn (Sizes are not the
(3) If m p n, then AB M mm , BA M mm

same)

## (Sizes are the same, but matrices are

not equal)

Properties
AB does not necessarily equal BA
(BA may even be an impossible operation)
For example,

(2 3)
B

(3 2)

(3 2) = (2 2)
A

(2 3) = (3 3)

A(BC) = (AB)C

## The determinant of a matrix A is denoted

by |A| (or det(A)).
Determinants exist only for square
matrices.

matrix

If A =

a11 a12
a

21 a22

Then

A a11a22 a12a21

## Minor and Cofactor of a Matrix Entry

Definition:
If A is a square matrix, then the minor of
entry aij is denoted by Mij and is defined to
be the determinant of the sub-matrix that
remains after the ith row and jth column are
deleted from A. The number (-1)i+jMij is
denoted by Cij and is called the cofactor of
a11 a12 a13
entry aij.
A= a21 a a
22
23
For 3x3 matrix
a31 a32 a33

M11 =

a22
a23
a

Example

A=

## The minor M11=

of a11 is:
The
cofactor of
a11 is:
The minor
of a23 is:
The
cofactor of

2 3

5 3

0 8

= 5X8 - 3X0=40

C11=(-1)i+jMij=(-1)2M11=M11=40
M23=

= 1X0 2X1=-2

C23=(-1)i+jMij=(-1)5M23 =-M23 =2

a11 a12 a13
a21 a22 a23
a31 a32 a33
C11= a22
a32

a23

C12= -

## a33a11 a12 a13

a21 a22 a23

a21
a23
a31

C13
=

a21
a22
a31

a33
= a11C11 +a12C12 +a13C13

## a31 a32 a33

And for nxn matrix: = a11C11 +a12C12 +..
+a1nC1n

a32

Example :
You can use any row or column to get the value of the
determinant
A=

1 0

2 -3

3 4

-1 5

## det(A) = a11C11 +a12C12 + a13C13

+a14C14

2 -2

0 1

1
4

det(A)=(1 5
)
1

3
0

2 -2

- (0) -1

- (-3) -1

2 -2
1

3
+2

-1

= (1)(35)-0+(2)(62)-(-3)
(13)=198

5 -2
1

Properties of Determinants

## Determinants have several mathematical

properties which are useful in matrix
manipulations.
1 |A|=|AT|.
2. If a row or column of A = 0, then |A|= 0.
3. If every value of a row or column in a matrix
A is multiplied by k, then |new matrix| = k|
A|.
4. If two rows (or columns) are interchanged
the sign, but not value, of |A| changes.
5. If two rows or columns are identical, |A| = 0.
6. If two rows or columns are linear
combination of each other, |A| = 0

Properties of Determinants
7. |A| remains unchanged if each element of
a row or column is multiplied by a constant
and added to any other row.
8. |AB| = |A| |B|
9. Det of a diagonal matrix or upper
triangular (lower triangular) = product of
the diagonal elements

## The Inverse of a Matrix A (A

1
)
For an n n matrix A, there may be a
Matrix B such that
AB = I = BA.
The inverse is analogous to a reciprocal
A matrix which has an inverse is
nonsingular.
A matrix which does not have an inverse
A 0
is singular.
A1
(1) The inverse of A is
Note:
An inverse exists only if
denoted by

(2) AA1 A1 A I

50/61

## If B and C are both inverses of the matrix A, then

B = C.
AB I
Pf:
C ( AB ) CI
(CA) B C
IB C
BC
Consequently, the inverse of a matrix is unique.

## How to find inverse matrixes?

If

a b
A

c d

-1

1
det( A)

and |A| 0

d b
c a

Properties of inverse
matrices

AB

T 1

-1 1

B A
-1

A
-1

-1

## The Inverse of a Matrix

The transpose of the matrix of cofactors from A is
called the adjoint of A, and it is denoted by

c11 c12
Cofactor Matrix c21 c22
c31 c32
c11
Adj ( A) C T c12
c13

c21
c22
c23

c13
c23
c33

c31
c32
c33

## How to Find A-1 Using the Adjoint of a

Matrix?
If A is an invertible matrix, then

1
A
det(A)
1

Note:
1.The square matrix A is invertible if and only if det(A)
is not zero.
2. If A is an n x n triangular matrix, then det(A) is the
product of the entries on the main diagonal of the
matrix.

Elimination:
55/61

| I Gauss
-Jordan
Eliminatio
n I | A1

1.
2.
3.

## Interchange any two rows.

Multiply a row by a nonzero constant.
Replace a row with itself and a multiple
of another row.

matrix.

1 1 0
1 0 1
6 2 3

Solution:

1 1 0 1 0 0
A I 1 0 1 0 1 0
6 2 3 0 0 1

1 1

r '2 r 2 (1 ) r1

0
6

1 0 0
1 1 1 1 0

0
3

0 0 1

58/61

1 1 0 1 0 0

r3 ' r3 6 r1
0
1 1 1 1 0
0 4
3 6 0 1

Solution
59/61

1 1 0 1 0 0

r3 ' r3 4 r2
0
1 1 1 1 0
0 0 1 2 4 1

60/61

0 0
1 1 0 1

r3 ' ( 1) r3
0
1 1 1
1 0
0 0
1 2 4 1

61/61

0 0
1 1 0 1

r2 ' r2 r3
0
1 0 3 3 1
0 0 1 2 4 1

62/61

1 0 0 2 3 1

r1 ' r1 r2
0 1 0 3 3 1
0 0 1 2 4 1
[ I A1 ]

63/61

2 3 1
A1 3 3 1
2 4 1

Check to
verify1:
AA A1 A I

## Ex : Find the inverse of the following matrix

64/61

1 2 3
A 2 5 3
1 0 8

Sol:

1 2 3 1 0 0
A I 2 5 3 0 1 0
1 0 8 0 0 1

3 1 0 0
1 2
r '2 r 2 (2 ) r1 0 1 3 2 1 0
1 0
8 0 0 1
2
3 1 0 0
1
r '3 r 3 ( 1 ) r1 0
1 3 2 1 0
0 2
5 1 0 1

65/61

3 1 0 0
1 2
r '3 r 3 ( 2 ) r2 0 1 3 2 1 0
0 0 1 5 2 1

3 1
0 0
1 2
r '3 1 r3 0 1 3 2
1 0
0 0
1 5 2 1

0
0
1 2 3 1
r '2 r 2 3r3 0 1 0 13 5 3
0 0 1 5 2 1

66/61

6
3
1 2 0 14
r '1 r 1 3 r3 0 1 0 13 5 3
0 0 1
5 2 1
9
1 0 0 40 16

r '1 r1 2 r2
0 1 0 13 5 3
0 0 1
5 2 1
9
40 16
A1 13 5 3

5 2 1

## Power of a square matrix:

67/61

(1) A0 I

(2) Ak AA

A

(k 0 positive integer)

k factors

(3) Ar A s Ar s

r , s : posivite integers

( Ar ) s Ars
d1 0
0 d
2
( 4) D

0 0

0
d1k

0
0
Dk

d n
0

0 0

d 2k 0

k
0 dn

Rank

## The rank of a matrix is defined as

rank(A) = number of linearly
independent rows
= the number of linearly
independent columns.

## A set of vectors is said to be linearly

dependent if scalars c1, c2, , cn (not all
zero) can be found such that
c1a1 + c2a2 + + cnan = 0

Linear System
3x 2 y 5 z 3
2 x y 4 z 2
x 4 y 7z 1

## If you have a system of

equations and just pick off
the coefficients and put
them in a matrix it is
called a coefficient matrix.

3 2 5

A 2 1
4
1
4 7

Coefficient matrix

Augmented matrix

3x 2 y 5 z 3
2 x y 4 z 2
x 4 y 7z 1

## If you take the coefficient

matrix and then add a last
column with the constants,
it is called the augmented
matrix. Often the
constants are separated
with a line.

3
3 2 5

A 2 1
4 2
1
4 7 1

## Row Echelon Form

We use elementary row operations to make the matrix look
like the one below. The # signs just mean there can be any
number here---we dont care what.

1
0

#
1
0

#
#
1

#
#

"The Goal"

## After we get the matrix to look like our goal, we put

the variables back in and use back substitution to
get the solutions.

## This is one example only. You can find so many

row echelon forms like one below.

Recall

## Use row operations to obtain

echelon form:
have 1
where we
need it.

1 2 1 1
3 5 1 3

2 6 7 1
The augmented matrix

## Well take row 1 and multiply it by

3 and add to row 2 to get a 0.
The notation for this step is
r2 +(3)r1 we write it by the row
we replace in the matrix.

x 2y z 1
3x 5 y z 3
2x 6 y 7z 1
Work on this column first.
Get the 1 and then use it
as a tool to get zeros
below it with row
operations.

1
0

#
1
0

#
#
1

#
#

r2= r2+(-3)r1

3r1
+ r2

1 1
1 2
0 1 2 0

2 6
7 1

6 3

0 1 2

1
1 2
0 1 2

r3= r3 + (-2)r1

2r1
Now our
first column
is like our
goal.

1
0

2 4

+ r3 2

6
2

2 2

7 1
5 1

## We need a 1 in the second row second column

so well multiply row 2 by 1

r2=(-1)r2

1
1
1 2
0 1 2 0

0 2
5 1

## Well use row 2 with the 1 as a tool to get a 0

below it by multiplying it by 2 and adding to
row 3

1 2 1 1
0 1 2 0
r3= r3 + (2)r2

0 0 1 1
2r2

0 2 4

+ r3 0

2
0

5 1
1 1

## the second column is

like we need it now

1
0

#
1
0

#
#
1

#
#

z column

y column

x column

1 2 1
0 1 2

equal signs

0 0 1 1

x 2

x x22 2y z11 1
y y
2 2z100
y2
z 1
Substitute 1 in for z in
second equation to find y

## Substitute 1 in for z and 2

for y in first equation to find
Now well move to the third
x.
column and we see for our goal Solution is: (2 , 2 ,
we just need a 1 in the third row 1)
of the third column. We have it so
1
#
#
#

## weve achieved the goal and its

0 1 # #
time for back substitution. We

## put the variables and = signs

0 0 1 #
back in.

x 2y z 1
3x 5 y z 3
2x 6 y 7 z 1

Solution is: (2 , 2 ,
1)

## This is the only (x , y , z) that

make ALL THREE equations
true. Lets check it.

2 2 2 1 1
3 2 5 2 1 3
2 2 6 2 7 1 1

x 2y z 1
3x 5 y z 3
2x 6 y 7 z 1

Solution is: (2 , 2 ,
1)

## Geometrically this means we have three planes that

intersect at a point, a unique solution.

## The process of reducing the augmented matrix to echelon

form or reduced echelon form, and the process of
manipulating the equations to eliminate variables, is called:

Gaussian Elimination

3x 2 y 2 z 6
2x 3 y 4z 0
7 x 3 y 2 z 1

Echelon form

1 1

2
6

8 12
0 1 5

5
0 0 0 19

## If you put variables and = signs back in the

bottom equation then 0 = 19
a false statement!
INCONSISTENT - NO SOLUTION

Example:

5x 6 y z 4
2x 3y z 1
4x 3y z 5

Echelon form

1 3 2 1
0 1 1 1

0 0
0 0

put variables
back in
solve for x & y

x 3 y 2 z 1
y z 1

x t2
y t 1
z t

5x 4 y 2 z 6
3x 2 y 4 z 0

5 - 4 2 6
3 - 2 4 0

4 0
3 -2

r '1 (1 / 5 ) r1

r '2 r2 ( 3) r1

## 1 - 4/5 2/5 6/5

1
7 -9
0

r '2 ( 5 / 2 ) r2

4
2
6
x y z
5
5
5
y 7 z 9

## Let z = t t is any real number

then y = -9-7t
x=(4/5)(-9-7t)-(2/5)t+(6/5)=(-6)t+(-6)

1 2 3 1 2
3 1 2 4 1

2 3 5 1 3

r '2 r2 3 r1

r '3 r3 2 r1

r '2 1 / 7 r2

1 2 3 1 2
0 7 7 7 7

0 1 1 1 1
1
0

2
1

0 1

3
1
1

1 2
1 1
1 1

r '3 r3 r2

1 2 3 1 2
0 1 1 1 1

0 0 0 0 0

x t 3s 4
y t s 1
z t
ws

## Few techniques to find the solutions of a linear

system if the linear system has a unique
solution

Cramers Rule

## If a system of n linear equations in n variables

has a coefficient matrix with a nonzero
determinant,
A
then thedet(
solution
of det(
theAsystem
is given
by
A1 )
det( A
2)
n)
x1
, x2
, , xn
,
det( A)
det( A)
det( A)
where the ith column of Ai is the column of
constants in the system of equations.

a11
a11 x1 a12 x2 a13 x3 b1
A3

a
x

a
x

a
x

a21
21 1 22 2
23 3
2
3
A
a x a x a x b
a31
3
31 1 32 2 33 3

a12
a22
a32

b1
b2
b3

a11
a21
a31

a12
a22
a32

a13
a23
a33

Example
3-100

## Use Cramers Rule to solve the system of linear

equation
x 2 y 3z 1
2x
z 0
3x 4 y 4 z 2
Sol:

1
2 3
A 2
0
1 10 0 (the system has an unique solution)
3 4
4
3
8
1
2 3
y , z
2
5
0
0
1
A1
2 4
4 (2)(1)(2) (4)(1)(1) 8 4
x

A
10
10
10 5