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Chemical Engineering Plant Design

CHE 441

Dr. Asim Laeeq Khan


Assistant Professor
Email: alaeeqkhan@ciitlahore.edu.pk

Materials Transfer Equipment


Flow meters
Tanks & Vessels

Material Transferring Units


Pumps and Pipes
Conveyers, fans, blowers, compressors
Selection of the most suitable means of
transfer
Specifications of the equipment

Piping in Process Industry

Major Unit
Strength of the pipe
Conventional terms (Standard, strong, extra)
Schedule No.

Piping in Process Industry

Commonly used schedule No.


10, 20, 30, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140, 160
Standard Pipe
Extra-strong pipe
Nominal pipe diameter
Standard sizes
Wall thickness independent
Pipe auxiliaries
Low pressure (25 psi)
Standard (125 psi)
Heavy (250 psi)
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Design of Piping System

Choice of materials and sizes


Effect of temperature
Insulation
Thermal expansion
Freezing or solidification of fluid

Exposure to physical and thermal shocks (Water


hammering)
Supports (Under ground or racks)
Maintenance and inspection
Ease of installation

Pipe Sizing
Economical pumping power (Dia vs Cost of material)

Calculation of optimum pipe diameter


For Turbulent flow

For viscous flow


Design velocities in terms of pipe diameter

Pump discharge : 0.06d + 0.4 m/s


Pump suction: 0.02d + 0.1 m/s
Steam or vapor: 0.2d m/s

Costs for Piping systems

Major cost item


up to 80% of purchased equipment
up to 20% of fixed capital costs

Methods for cost calculations


Percentage of purchased equipment costs
Material and labor take off method

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Costs for Piping systems

Labor costs

Fabrication costs

Diameter-inch method (Total number of fittings x nominal pipe dia) x


man-hr/dia-inch

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Friction factors

Important in calculating power requirements


Factors affecting friction losses
Velocity of fluid
Density of fluid
Viscosity of fluid
Pipe diameter
Pipe length
Pipe roughness
Function of relative roughness and Re
Friction factors due to pipe fittings, flow-meters etc

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Flow measuring equipment

Major flow measurement equipment

Orifice meter
Venturi meter
Rotameter
Others

Factors to be considered in selection of flow meters

Costs
Pressure drop

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Flow measuring equipment

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Flow measuring equipment

Coefficient of Discharge for Orifice meters

Fluid systems
ratio of diameters

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Tanks & Pressure vessels

Shape of vessels

Cylindrical
Spherical
Rectangular

Material of construction
Design considerations

Wall thickness

Tensile strength
Operating pressure
Joint/welding efficiency
Diameter of tank

Fluid properties
Operating conditions
Openings
Codes for pressure vessels

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Tanks & Pressure vessels

Costs of tanks and vessels

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Tanks & Pressure vessels

Costs of agitators

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