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CONCEPT MAP OF CHAPTER 2

LOCOMOTION & SUPPORT

LOCOMOTION & SUPPORT IN


HUMANS & ANIMALS

TYPES OF
SKELETON

Muscles, ligaments
& tendon

SUPPORT IN PLANTS

LOCOMOTION

AQUATIC PLANTS

TERRESTRIAL
PLANTS

Hydrostatic skeleton
Birds
Exoskeleton

Fish
Grasshopper

Endoskeleton

Axial skeleton

Appendicular
skeleton

Earthworms

LEARNING OUTCOMES

To explain the necessity for support and


locomotion in humans and animals,
To describe problems that could be faced by
humans and animals in support and
locomotion,
To explain how problems in support and
locomotion are overcome in humans and
animals,
To name the bones that make up the axial
skeleton and appendicular skeleton of the
human body

The Necessity for Support


& Locomotion in Humans &
Animals
WHY DO HUMANS &
ANIMALS NEED SUPPORT?
1. To find the food
2. To find partner for mating
3. To protect/escape from
their predator
4. To shelter from bad
environment

The Necessity for Support


& Locomotion in Humans &
Animals
Without support, animals & humans
would not be able to maintain their body
shape their body collapse under the
weight of their own tissues.
Support are provided by some form of
skeleton.
Hydrostatic

Exoskeleton

skeleton

endoskeleton

HYDROSTATIC SKELETON

A fluid-filled internal body cavity in


which the fluid is held under pressure
maintaining the body shape & providing
support for internal organ
The cavity is surrounded by muscles
arranged in layers.
The body shape of the animal changes as
these muscles contract & relax.

The animals are soft & flexible, the


hydrostatic fluid does protect body parts
by acting as a shock absorber.
Examples : earthworm, jellyfish, leech &
caterpillar.

EXOSKELETON

A rigid outer covering usually made up


of protein, chitins &/@ calcium salt.
Insects the cuticle (covered with wax to
prevent water loss from the body), cover
the bodys surface.
The exoskeleton is jointed / hinged =
certain points of the skeleton are flexible
& can bend enabling the movement.

Exoskeleton restrict the growth of


animals the exoskeleton must be
shed from time to time in order for
the animal to grow. (ecdysis)

Also found in the shells of molluscs


& the bony plates of tortoises.

Examples : insects, crabs, lobsters,


tortoise

ENDOSKELETON

Found in the bodies of all vertebrates


including fish, amphibians & birds.

Consist of hard skeleton of bones &


cartilage found inside the body made
up of calcium & phosphate.

Works with the muscular system to


perform movement & locomotion. It
support the body & protects the
organs.

The Necessity for Support


& Locomotion in Humans &
Animals

The functions of skeleton :


Provide

shape & support


Enables movement (locomotion)
Protects internal organs
Stores calcium & phosphate ions
Produces blood cells
A firm base for the attachment of
muscles

The Necessity for Support


& Locomotion in Humans &
Animals

Problems that could be faced by humans and


animals in support and locomotion,
gravitational

force, friction & resistance


when moving around

Aspect need to be considered when


describing the locomotion of an animal :Stability when it moves, it is temporarily
unstable, but its stability will be restored when
it stops.
Support must have enough support from its
bodys skeleton
Propulsion must be propelled in order to
move

HOW TO OVERCOME THE


PROBLEMS?

RESISTANCE & FRICTION by


streamlining their bodies.

GRAVITATIONAL FORCE most


animals have their own supporting
structures (fins fishes, wings birds
& strong limbs tetrapods & humans)
provide the propulsive force to
overcome the problem

The skeletal system together with


its muscles are designed specially to
overcome the problems associated
with support & locomotion of
humans & animals.

To initiate locomotion, the force


required is generated by contraction
of muscles, whereas the movement
is transmitted by the skeleton.

THE HUMAN SKELETAL


SYSTEM

The adult human skeleton consist of 206


bones.

Divided into two main parts : the axial


skeleton & the appendicular skeleton.

The axial skeleton : made up of the bones


that form the vertical axis of the body.

It supports & protects the organs of the


head, neck & trunk. (skull, vertebral
column, rib cage)

The appendicular skeleton : made up


of the bones that are attached to the
axial skeleton.

Include bones of the limbs, the


pectoral girdle & the pelvic girdle.

FUNCTION OF THE
SKELETON

PROTECTION the skull protects the


brain, the vertebral column protects
the spinal cord & the rib cage protects
internal organs such as the heart.

SUPPORT act as a framework to


support the soft body parts, to
maintain the upright position & to
keep the body stable.

FUNCTION OF THE
SKELETON

MOVEMENT bones interact with


the skeletal muscle.

BLOOD CELL FORMATION most


of the blood cells are formed in the
bone marrow of the long bones.

MINERAL STORAGE bones act as


a reservoir for calcium & phosphorus.

SKELETAL SYSTEM
HUMAN SKELETON
AXIAL SKELETON
APPENDICULAR SKELETON
SKULL

VERTEBRAL COLUMN

RIB CAGE

CERVICAL

THORACIC
LUMBAR
SACRUM
COCCYX

PECTORAL GIRDLE
PELVIC GIRDLE

FORELIMB BONES

HINDLIMB BONES

THE SKULL

Made up of 8 cranial bones & 14


facial bones including the upper
jaw & the lower jaw.

The facial bones also provide


support & protect the entrances
to the respiratory system.

SKULL

PARTS
8 Cranial bones

FUNCTIONS
Are fused to form immovable joints
called sutures.
Protect the brain & the sensory organs.

Eye sockets

to protect the eye ball.

Nasal bones

to support nose tissues

Ear holes

to protect inner part of ears

Maxilla (upper
jaw)

to support upper teeth

Mandible (lower

to support lower teeth, to enable eating

VERTEBRAL COLUMN

Known as the spine/ backbone.


Extends from the base of the skull to the pelvic
girdle.
Made up of 33 vertebrae separated from each other
by discs of cartilage (intervertebral discs) which
absorb shocks & serve as flex point.
This S-shaped column supports & balances the body
in a vertical plane & protects the spinal cord,
supports the skull & provides a base for the
attachment of muscles to the back.

VERTEBRAL COLUMN

The vertebrae differ in structure &


function in different regions of the
vertebral column.

A vertebra typically consists of a


main body (the centrum), a neural
arch & transverse processes.

VERTEBRAL COLUMN

VERTEBRAL COLUMN
STRUCTURE

FUNCTION

NEURAL SPINE

Provides surface for attachment of


ligaments & muscles.

TRANSVERSE
PROCESS

Provides surface for attachment of


ligaments & muscles.

NEURAL ARCH/
VERTEBRAL
FORAMEN

Protects the spinal cord.

CENTRUM

Provides support & absorbs shocks.

NEURAL CANAL

Provides the passage of nerves from


the spinal cord.

ARTICULATING
SURFACE

Provides surface which articulates


with the next vertebra.

TYPES OF VERTEBRAE
TYPE OF
VERTEBRA
E
Cervical
Vertebra

POSITIO
N

NUMBER
OF
VERTEBRA
E

Below the
skull

MAIN CHARACTER

1st one atlas


vertebra
2nd axis
vertebrae
Large neural
canal/vertebral
foramen
Short neural spine
Flat centrum
Short transverse
processes
Has a pair of
vertebrarterial

CERVICAL VERTEBRA

THORACIC VERTEBRA
TYPE OF
POSITIO NUMBER OF
VERTEBRA
N
VERTEBRAE
E
Thoracic
Vertebra

Thorax

12

MAIN CHARACTER

Neural canal/
vertebral foramen
is smaller than
cervical
vertebras

Long neural spine/


spinous processes
(for attachment of
back muscle)

Thick & big


centrum

THORACIC VERTEBRA (12)

LUMBAR VERTEBRA
TYPE OF
VERTEBRA
E
Lumbar
Vertebra

POSITIO
N

NUMBER
OF
VERTEBRAE

Waist

MAIN CHARACTER

small neural
canal/
vertebral foramen

short neural spine

thick & big


centrum

long transverse
processes for
muscle attachment

LUMBAR VERTEBRA

SACRUM & COCCYX


TYPE OF
VERTEBRA
E
Sacrum

POSITIO
N

NUMBER
OF
VERTEBRAE

Pelvic
region

5 fused

MAIN CHARACTER

Vertebrae fused to
each other

Has four pairs of


openings

Triangular

Coccyx

Caudal
region

4 fused

shape

Bones fused to
each other forming a
triangular shape
which tapers at one
end

SACRUM & COCCYX

THE STERNUM & RIBS

The rib cage consists


of 12 pairs of ribs
with the thoracic
vertebrae at the back
portion of the body &
join to the sternum
in the front portion.

Movement of the rib


cage are brought
about by intercostal
muscles between the
ribs.

THE STERNUM & RIBS

The sternum &


ribs enclose &
protect the
internal organs
(the lungs &
heart) & play an
important role
in breathing.

PECTORAL GIRDLE

Consist of scapula &


clavicle.

Links the upper limbs


bones to the axial
skeleton.

The scapula : bound by


muscles to the back of the
thorax. It is a flat,
triangular bone which
provides a surface for the
attachment of muscles.

The clavicle : a rodshaped bone placed


horizontally above the
scapula.

It links the scapula


to the sternum. It
limits the movements
of the scapula.

PELVIC GIRDLE

Consists of 6 fused
bones support the
weight of the body from
the vertebral column.

Also protect the


internal organs
urinary bladder &
reproductive organs.

Made up of two halves,


each consists of 3 bones
(ilium, pubis & ischium)

PELVIC GIRDLE

The pelvic girdle is


attached to the
sacrum of the
vertebral column.

The asetabulum /
socket for femur
articulates with
each side of the
pelvic girdle at the
hip joint.

FORELIMB
BONES

Consists of humerus,
radius & ulna.

The Humerus :
The long bones of the
upper arm
Rounded head end fits
into an open socket of
the scapula forming a
ball-and-socket joint
(allow movement in all
planes)

The posterior end of


the humerus forms a
hinge joint with the
ulna with the ulnaradius bones, allowing
movement in one plane
only.

The radius & ulna :

The bones on the forearm


in which the ulna is
longer than the radius.
It has a notch at its
upper end which
articulates the humerus
at the elbow.

The carpals :

The metacarpals :

The bones that form


the wrist.
Consists of 8 small
bones

The rod-shaped ones


that form the palm.

The phalanges :

The bones that form


the fingers.

HINDLIMB
BONES
Consists of femur, tibia

The femur :

Consists of femur, tibia


& fibula.

The longest, strongest &


heaviest bone in the body.
Support the tight.
Play an important role in
maintaining the bodys
upright position & in
locomotion as it is
attached to massive
muscles.
The head of femur fits into
the pelvic girdle to form a
joint.
Other end, articulates with
the tibia & fibula at the
knee.

The tibia & fibula :

The bones of the lower


leg.
Support the shank.
Tibia larger than fibula
& is the weight-bearing
bone of the leg.
Fibula is a long & thin
bone not bear any load
more important for
attachment of muscles
than for support.
Articulate with the
tarsals of the ankle.

The tarsals :

The metatarsals :

The 5 rod-shaped bones


that form the foot.

The phalanges :

The 7 bones that form the


ankle.

The bones that form the


toes.

The patella/kneecap :

A small rounded, movable


bone.
Protect the knee joint.