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Sodium Chloride

Introduction to NaCl

Sodium chloride is a compound formed from the ionic bonding of


sodium and chloride
Sodium chloride, also known as salt, common salt, table salt or
halite, is an ionic compound with the chemical formula NaCl,
representing equal proportions of sodium and chlorine. Sodium
chloride is the salt most responsible for the salinity of the ocean
and of the extracellular fluid of many multicellular organisms. In
the form of edible or table salt it is commonly used as a
condiment and food preservative. Large quantities of sodium
chloride are used in many industrial processes, and it is a major
source of sodium and chlorine compounds used as feedstocks
for further chemical syntheses. A second major consumer of
sodium chloride is deicing of roadways in sub-freezing weather

Sodium Chloride is one of the most important salts in


nature and biological systems.Salts are inorganic
compounds, which means they do not contain carbon
and hydrogen together in one molecule. Salts form
from a positively charged atom, called a cation
(pronounced CAT-eye-uhn, attracting a negatively
charged atom, known as an anion. This attraction is
known as an ionic bond, and is key in maintaining the
chemical structure of salts.

Introduction to the basics of


reagents preparation
Name of experiment :
AnalysisofaMixtureofNaHCO3andNaCl
PURPOSE:
1. TodeterminethepercentofNaHCO3
inamixtureofNaHCO3andNaCl.
2. Toseparatetwosubstancesbyachemicalreaction.
METHOD :
When a mixture of NaHCO3 and NaCl is treated with
concentrated
HCl, only NaHCO3 will react, whereas the
NaCl will remain unchanged:

Thesampleof unknown contains two compounds


(NaHCO3
and
NaCl).Theresiduewhichresultsuponadditionofaqueo
usHClwilcontainonlyNaCl.
PartoftheresidueistheoriginalNaClthatwaspresent
andtheotherpartistheNaClformedasaresultofthe
reactionbetweenNaHCO3andHCl.

Since:
ThemoleratiobetweentheNaClformedandtheNaHCO3reac
tedis1:1(e.g.,1moleofNaHCO3produces1moleofNaCl)
ThemolarmassofNaClislessthanthemolarmassofNaHCO3
Theotherproductsofthereaction(CO2andH2O)aregasesan
dwilbelosttothesurroundings.
Then the residue wil weigh less than the original sample
and
the sample will appeartohavelostmass.
SincethemasslossisproportionaltothemassofNaHCO3
originaly
presentinthemixture,themassofNaHCO3canbecalculated.
The
resultofthisanalysisis usualy given as the
percentage of NaHCO3present in the original sample of
unknowncomposition.

Procedure
1. Obtain a sample (about 1.0 grams) of the unknown
(NaCl + NaHCO3) mixture.

2. Record the unknown number in your Laboratory


Notebook.
3. Place a clean 50 mL beaker on a wire gauze and heat
for three minutes at maximum flame temperature to
remove all moisture from the beaker.

4. Allow the beaker to cool to room temperature.


5. Mass the cooled beaker on the analytic balance (to the
nearest 0.0001 g)

6. Add your sample in the beaker.


7. Determine the exact mass of the beaker and its content s
on the analytic balance ( to the nearest 0.0001 g).
8. Determine the exact mass of the sample in the beaker by
difference.
9. In the fume hood, measure out 4-5 mL of concentrated
hydrochloric acid (12 M) in your small graduated cylinder.

10.Record the volume of the acid to the nearest 0.1 mL.


Note : You must measure out at least 4.0 mL of the acid.
This will ensure that the HCl is NOT the limiting reactant.

11. In the fume hood, transfer the concentrated hydrochloric add


to another small beaker and cover it with a watch glass.

12. If you measured out too much concentrated hydrochloric acid,


dispose of it into an appropriately labeled waste container
found in the fume hood.
13. While in the fume hood, add by drops using a Pasteur pipette
the concentrated hydrochloric acid to the sample and observe
the effervescence.

Note : If the effervescence is too vigorous, slow down the


rate at
which the concentrated hydrochloric acid is
added. This is to avoid splattering of the sample.This
step is completed when all
of the concentrated
hydrochloric acid has been added to the sample.

14.Heat the beaker in the fume hood until the sample


appears dry
Note :
Avoid strong heating, especially at the beginning
since the excess hydrochloric acid may boil too
vigorously. This will cause loss of the residue and
poor experimental results.Evaporation should occur
but not too strong as to cause loss of residue
(splattering.) The easiest way to control the heating
is by moving
the Bunsen burner with your hand.
15.Continue to heat the beaker for an additional five
minutes.

Note : If the residue starts to melt (glassy


appearance), the heating is too strong and the
residue had probably been already heated to
dryness. Heating is done with the purpose to drive
off the gaseous products, and not to melt the
residue.Under no circumstances should you heat the
residue with a strong flame (crucible bottom is red)
for more than 5 minutes.
16. Allow the beaker to cool to room temperature
17. Determine the mass of the beaker and its contents
on the analytical balance assoon as the beaker
reached room temperature.
Note : If the residue of NaCl is kept for a while in the open
air, it will absorb moisture from the air, which will add to
the mass of the residue and result in an incorrect final
value.

18.Return the beaker and contents to the triangle and


reheat the beaker strongly (beaker bottom will turn
red) for 3 minutes.
19. Allow the beaker to cool to room temperature
20.Determine the mass of the beaker and its contents on
the analytical balance as soon as the beaker reached
room temperature.
21.If the mass of the beaker and its contents has
changed by more than 1 mg (0.0001 g) from the
pervious heating, reheat until a constant mass is
obtained.

Storage of chemical
reagents
Hazard information
Hazard classification:Non Hazardous. Non Dangerous
Goods.
Risk phrases:Not considered a hazard according to the
criteria of NOHSC.
Safety phrases: Not considered a hazard according to
the criteria of NOHSC.
First aid measures
Safety showers and eye wash facilities should be
provided.

Swallowed:
If conscious wash out mouth with water. Seek medical
advice.
Show this MSDS to medical practitioner.

Eye:
Immediately hold eyelids open and flood with water
for at least 15 minutes.Obtain medical aid. Show this
MSDS to medical practitioner.

Skin:
Remove contaminated clothing. Immediately wash
skin thoroughly with water and mild soap. Seek
medical advice if irritation persists. Show this MSDS to
medical practitioner. Launder clothing before reuse.
Inhaled:
Remove from contaminated air. Maintain breathing
with artificial respiration if necessary.

Fire fighting measures


Suitable Extinguishing Media
Water spray. Carbon dioxide, dry chemical powder, or
appropriate foam.

Hazards from Combustion Products


Decomposition products include oxides of sodium.
Precautions For Fire Fighters and Special Protective
Equipment
Fire fighters and others who may be exposed to
combustion products during fire should wear full
protective clothing including positive pressure selfcontained breathing apparatus (SCBA). Wear SCBA
with full face-piece, operated in positive pressure
mode when fighting fires.

Accidental Release Measures


Emergency procedures
Prevent from entering waterways. Restrict access to
area. Ventilate area. Remove chemicals that can react
with the spilled material.
Methods and materials for containment and clean up
Use inert material such as sand or earth to contain
spill or leak Absorb spills with chemical absorber or
vermiculite and dispose of in accordance with local
regulations.

Handling and Storage


Precautions for Safe Handling
Do not get in eyes, on skin, on clothing. Avoid prolonged
or repeated exposure.

Conditions for Safe Storage


Store sealed in original container in a cool well ventilated
situation away from foods and other chemicals. Do not
store in direct sunlight. Observe good hygiene and
housekeeping practices.

Equipment calibration
methods
Introduction to pipette
A pipette, pipet, pipettor or chemical dropper is a
laboratory tool commonly used in chemistry, biology
and medicine to transport a measured volume of
liquid, often as a media dispenser. Pipettes come in
several designs for various purposes with differing
levels of accuracy and precision, from single piece
glass pipettes to more complex adjustable or
electronic pipettes. Many pipette types work by
creating a partial vacuum above the liquid-holding
chamber and selectively releasing this vacuum to draw
up and dispense liquid. Measurement accuracy varies
greatly depending on the style.

Pipette Types
The main types of pipette in use and the ones we are
concerned with are those which transfer precise
amounts of fluid on a regular basis in a laboratory
environment. These pipettes which can also be called
pipets, micropipettes, micro-pipettes or pipettors are
predominantly hand held devices, the vast majority of
which are of the air-displacement variety.
With many advances over the last 50 years (see
history of pipettes) in use of materials, laboratory
protocols, health & safety requirements and
electronics we have seen an evolution in pipettes from
many manufacturers.
The most common pipettes that require calibration,
servicing and maintenance on a regular basis are
shown below:

Manual Single Channel Fixed Volumes Pipettes

Manual Single Channel Variable Volume Pipettes (also


known as mechanical, adjustable or digital)

Manual Multichannel Variable Volume Pipettes

Manual Single Channel Positive Displacement Pipettes

Electronic Single Channel Variable Volume Pipettes

Electronic Multichannel Variable Volume Pipettes

Pipetting Aids (cell culture pipettes)

What is pipette calibration?


Pipette calibration is a vital element that a good laboratory
should consider for any lab regime that requires precise
volumes of liquid transfer or dilution.
It can be a complex process when all components of the
procedure are allowed for a certain possibility, particularly
when there are numerous makes and models of pipettes on the
market and different calibration protocol options to consider.
Pipettes supplied by Fine Care Biosystems hold its individual
calibration certificate as per ISO 8655 standards. Calibration of
each pipette has been checked at three variable volumes for
ten readings.
To ensure precision and accuracy of each pipette, regular
testing and calibration verification of the instrument is
necessary.

Different types of calibration with process


overview
Pipette calibration can be carried out in different types and
processes. One of the most commonly used methods is
gravimetric analysis, where calibration is predominantly
undertaken by laboratories as per the standard mentioned
in EN ISO 8655 guideline. This method is preferred for
traceability to simplicity to a perfect measure.
Gravimetric analysis is generally regarded as the
economical ways of calibration. Under this method,
distributing samples of distilled water is set into a
receiving container in an accurate analytical balance. The
denseness of water is a known constant, barometric
pressure, temperature and humidity are recorded and kept
within certain limits and hence

Each element of this process is audited itself to ensure


compliance and chain of custody for precise
calculations.
Apart from gravimetric analysis, there are colorimetric
methods in use but are often sued for examining
pipettes and for non-accredited calibration

How to do pipette
calibration
Pipettes are necessary equipment often used in chemical
laboratories to measure and transfer specific amount of liquid.
Pipettes are essentially narrow tube like equipment with a
rubber bulb at the top. The tube is numbered from the top to
the bottom mostly in increments of ten millimeters. Accuracy
in pipette measurement is necessary as any discrepancy in
reading can affect the result of chemical reaction. To ensure
accuracy it is necessary to perform pipette calibration at
regular intervals. Calibration of equipment is desirable even in
the most advanced equipment as overtime several factors can
affect the readings of measuring equipment. Calibration
process helps to check whether or not the equipment is
offering correct reading so that it can be rectified in time and
efficiency of processes or laboratory test is maintained.

Steps :
1. Clean the Pipette: Thoroughly clean the pipette as
well as the beaker. Dry it out completely. This is done
to get rid of any past residue that may affect the
results

2.

Add Distilled Water: Put some distilled water in an


Erlenmeyer flask. Let it stand out on a bench for about
15 minutes. Now, measure the temperature of the
water.

3. Beaker Mass Measurement: Find out the mass of


the beaker to the nearest tenth of a milligram, using a
balance.

4. Taking Help of Pipette Filler: Now, using a pipette


filler fill the pipette with the water from the flask.
Move this water into the beaker. Weigh the beaker
again. Note down the difference in weight of the
beaker and calculate the mass of water discharged.
Carry out this process three more times.

5.Calculate and determine: Calculate and determine


the mean of the four pipette measurements.

6. Adjusting the Buoyancy of Air: Make an addition of


1.06 mg per gram to the mean mass to adjust for the
buoyancy of air during the weighing. Do not follow this
step in case you are using a digital scale.

7. Calculating Density of Water: Calculate the density


of water at the temperature you measured earlier in
the process. Determine the mean volume of water
discharged by the pipette using the formula: Volume =
mass / density

8. Compare Measurements & Calculations: To check


the precision of your pipette make a comparison of
your measurement and calculations to other results in
pipette calibration

Recommendations
To handle a chemical substance, we should refer to
MSDS and use it wisely.
Obey the regulation while in the laboratory.
Always do the instrument calibration so that it will
give correct reading while doing a measurement.