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Canine Distemper

Virus (CDV)
oCANINE & FELINE

MANAGEMENT
o5TH PERIOD
oDR. BRAHMBHATT
oJULY 15, 2011
oCAMEO BUA
oKAITIE JOHNSON

Canine Distemper Virus


-caninedistemper.org

Etiology
CDV is a highly contagious viral infection caused by

an enveloped, single stranded RNA virus, of the


family Paramyxoviridae, which is closely related to
the measles and rinderpest.
Paramyxovirus: a genus of viruses that cause
respiratory infections in a variety of vertebrate hosts.
o

Included: Mumps and Para influenza viruses.

The virus initially replicates in the lymphatic tissue

of the respiratory tract, followed by infection of GI,


urogenital, CNS, and optic nerves. Disease follows in
these affected tissues. (1)

Disease History

Canine Distemper Virus (CDV)

17601770

English

Russian

Report

Case.

Report

Case.

1700

1900
1910
1920

1905

1740

First

French

Reported

Report

Case

st

1 Case.

1930

1940

1700-1990

1985

First

Captivized

Ferrets

Died

of

Disease

1950
1960
1970
1980
1990

1974 1950

Northern

Canadian
Vaccine

Created

Wolves

Diseased

(2)

Disease History (2)


1740: The French first reported animals found with
distemper, soon after the discovery of America.
1760: Cases reported in England.
1770: Cases reported in Russia.
1905: First reported incidence in America.
1950: Vaccine for canine distemper created.
1974: Serological discovery of CDV in northern Canada
wolves.

Serological: the science that deals with serums, particularly blood serum.

1985: 6 ferrets were brought into captivity, and soon after


all died as a result of CDV. Another 6, later brought in, were
vaccinated, quarantined, and determined to be free of
disease.

Signalment
Canine distemper virus

infects dogs & other


mammals, including ferrets,
raccoons, skunks, & foxes.
(7)

Dogs of all ages are at risk of

infection if not previously


immunized, although
infection is most common in
puppies under 16 weeks of
age and older dogs.
Domestic cats are not at risk
of catching the disease, but
large felids, such as lions,
can catch the virus. (3)

Transmission
A healthy animal may contract canine distemper

from direct contact with or aerosol droplets from an


infected animal or its bodily secretions/waste. (7)
It can survive outside of the body for up to 3 hours at
room temperature, and for as little as 30 minutes in
60F weather.
It can survive for years if kept frozen and out of light.
CDV has not been shown to pose a risk to humans.

(4)

Clinical Signs (4)


Respiratory

Nasal & Ocular Discharge


Coughing
Dyspnea
Pneumonia

Gastrointestinal (GI)

Anorexia
Vomiting
Distemper Teeth
Diarrhea (May be bloody)

Dermatological

Abdominal Pustules
Nasal & Digital Hyperkaratosis

Ocular

Anterior Uveitis
(Inflammation of the front chamber of the eye; may cause the cornea to appear
cloudy and/or cause changes in the appearance of the virus.)

Keratoconjunctivitis Sicca
Optic Neuritis
Retinal Degeneration

Neurological

Chewing Gum Seizures


Weakness or Paralysis
Loss of Balance
Muscle Twitching
Hypersensitivity
Neck Pain
Behavioral Changes

Clinical Signs
Clinical signs vary, depending on the virus strain,

environmental conditions, and hosts age & immune


status. (5)
Symptoms of the disease are similar to that of a rabid
animal, and are mostly the same in all susceptible
species.(7)
Other clinical signs include:

Diphasic fever

Diphasic: having two phases.

Lethargy
Ataxia

Ataxia: loss of coordination of the muscles, especially of the


extremities.

Clinical Signs

Distemper Teeth
-the pitted, discolored teeth that may result
when young dogs are infected with distemper
virus prior to the eruption of their permanent
teeth.

Nasal & Digital


Hyperkeratosis
-often found in dogs with neurological
manifestations.(1)

Diagnostic Tests Expected Results


1.

2.
3.
4.
5.

IFA for viral antigen or


inclusion bodies in cells
from conjunctival scrape,
urine sediment, buffy
coat.
PCR of nasal or ocular
discharge.
Serum lgM or rising
serum lgG.
CSF antibody detection.
IDEXX RealPCR

1.

Fair to Poor

Good to Fair, Possible


False Positives.
3. Good, Possible False
Positives.
4. Good to Poor (3)
5. >90% Sensitivity &
Specificity (6)
2.

Recommended Treatment (3)


No specific treatment for distemper has been proven

effective.
Treatment consists of supportive care, and may
include:

fluid support; nutritional support & anti-emetic therapy for vomiting


& prolonged anorexia; nebulization & coupage for pneumonia;
antibiotics for secondary bacterial infection.

Vitamin B supplementation has been recommended &


vitamin A supplementation may be helpful early in the
course of the illness.
Seizures may need to be controlled with anti-seizure
medication.

Prognosis (1)
Prognosis depends on the strain of CDV and the dogs

immune response. Dogs may recover completely with good


nursing care, but despite intensive care, some dogs do not
make a satisfactory recovery.
Unfortunately, treatment for acute neurological
manifestations of distemper is unsuccessful. If neurologic
signs are progressive or severe the owner should be
appropriately advised, warned that neurological signs can
develop weeks to years after infection, and the prognosis for
dogs with worsening neurological signs is poor.
Even if the dog survives, neurological damage is often
permanent.
Once a dog has fully recovered, it no longer sheds the virus &
is not contagious.

Pathologic Lesions of Disease


A.Lung lesion in an
African Wild Dog
B.Viral inclusion bodies
(darker spots in the clear
shapes)
(longer arrows are touching
them)

Inclusion bodies
are actual clumps of the
virus, that are visible
under the microscope,
within infected cells.(4)

Prevention
The only prevention is following a good vaccine program,

and keeping the pet up-to-date on all vaccines.


An effective CD vaccination has been available since the
1950s. The canine distemper MLV (modified live virus)
vaccine is the basic immunization for dogs. It is
generally combined with vaccines for canine parvovirus,
parainfluenza, adenovirus-2, leptospirosis, & sometimes
coronavirus.
Puppies are vaccinated beginning at 6 to 8 weeks old, and
then every 2 to 4 weeks thereafter until they are 16 weeks
old. The next vaccine is given one year later, and
vaccination boosters are given every 1 to 3 years after that
based on your veterinarians recommendation.(4)

Client Education
Inform the client that a good vaccination program is

the only prevention for all dogs.


If neurologic signs are present, the prognosis is
uncertain and usually limited.
The most common cause of seizures in puppies
younger than 6 months is CDV.
After the actual infection, neurologic signs may
appear within weeks to years, and last even after/if
the disease is survived.(8)

References
1.

2.

3.

4.

"Canine Distemper: Introduction." The Merck Veterinary Manual. Web. 14 July


2011. <http://www.merckvetmanual.com/mvm/index.jsp?
cfile=htm/bc/56700.htm>.
"Canine Distemper Timeline." Google - Timeline. Web.
<http://www.google.com/#q=canine+distemper+timeline&hl=en&sa=X&tbs=tl:
1,tll:1800,tlh:1999&prmd=ivns&ei=nEfTtPYGOXx0gHK6I3cAw&ved=0CDMQyQEoCg&bav=on.2,or.r_gc.r_pw.&fp
=b55e422e14032f58&biw=1920&bih=1007>.
"Canine Distemper Virus (CDV) | UC Davis Koret Shelter Medicine Program."
The UC Davis Koret Shelter Medicine Program | UC Davis Koret Shelter
Medicine Program. Web. 14 July 2011.
<http://www.sheltermedicine.com/shelter-health-portal/informationsheets/canine-distemper-virus-cdv>.
"Distemper - The Pet Health Care Library." 01 VeterinaryPartner Home Page VeterinaryPartner.com - a VIN Company! Web. 14 July 2011.
<http://www.veterinarypartner.com/Content.plx?P=PRINT>.

References, (cont.)

5.

6.

Nelson, Richard W., and C. Guillermo. Couto. "Canine Distemper Virus: Chapter
71, Part IX." Small Animal Internal Medicine. St. Louis, MO: Mosby/Elsevier,
2009. 1015-016. Print.
New: IDEXX RealPCR (CRD) Panel from IDEXX Reference Laboratories.
IDEXX Laboratories, Oct. 2007. Web. 06 July 2011.
<http://www.idexx.com/pubwebresources/pdf/en_us/smallanimal/referencelaboratories/diagnostic-updates/realpcr-canine-distemper-virus-test.pdf>.

7.

"Tennessee Wildlife Resources Agency - Canine Distemper." Web. 14 July


2011. <http://www.tn.gov/twra/distemper.html>.

8.

Summers, Alleice. "Canine Distemper: Chapter 9, Section 1." Common Diseases


of Companion Animals. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier Mosby, 2007. 238-39. Print.