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What’s communication?
Communication is the activity whereby an individual
or group conveys, consciously or unconsciously,
information to another individual or group and, where
necessary, evokes a response. The information may
be facts, feelings or ideas.
Koontz makes a valuable addition to the
definition of communication when he

“Communication is the transfer of information

from one person to another with the
information be in understood by both the
sender and receiver”
Purposes of Communication

 Informative
 Expressive
 Dierctive

This is probably the first

purpose that comes to
mind, and one we can
readily understand giving
facts and figures; making
reports; giving
explanation; describing

As a result of this type of communication,

you expect that the receiver will change his
or her behaviour

Alternatively, the receiver would be

expected to change his or her way of
“ the way in which one expresses one’s
feelings towards another”.
For this purpose, communications may
express praise or admiration for other people,
perhaps of their performance or behaviour;
they may express sympathy or understanding,
show dislike or apportion blame.
The function of communication include:
 To bring about change

 To sustain stability
 To lead people into a common
 To integrate the activities of management
 To establish links between an organisation
and its environment
These may be said to be essential for the
following purposes:
To convey information about what is happening, both
inside and outside the organisation.
 To inform staff of the organisation’s
policies and objectives.

 To lay down rules and regulations governing the

organisation, procedures and modes of behaviour,

 To provide explanations about the nature and

implications of current , problems and to explain
changes necessary.
Formal internal communication:
I.Vertical communication:
. Upward vertical communication
. Downward vertical communication

II.Horizontal communication:
. Direct horizontal communication
. Indirect horizontal communication
. When the flow is from the
top levels to lower levels we
talk of downward vertical
.When the flow is from lower
level back to the top we talk
of upward vertical
Fllows the line of command-decisin made at the
top have to be communicated and explained to
the low levels.we have seen that decision taken
at the top of an organisation are broadly-stared
policies in line with organisation goals,but as
these decision become translated into action
they must be detailed and specific..

This process can present difficulties for

communication systems.if the instructions are
too brief they may not carry the exact
meaning of what is required of the
subordinates,on the other hand,if they are too
detailed they may be so cumbersome that
subordinates are confused
Involves the reverse of the downward process.what
start as detailed specific information at the lower
levels has to be compressed into broad policy
terms,the implications of the data have to be
adstracted and passed on upwards.the massages
flowing upward are not order or instructions-they are
likely to consist of information on the progress being
made at the lower levels,details of requirements for
resources,problems being experienced

Although not oder,these upward-flowing messages may

exert pressure on management and effect policies because
they reflect grassroots findings within the organisation,and
management must take account of the attitudes of people
and groups at the lower levels
Another importand internal communication
flow pattern is horizontal
communication.between individuals in
diffirent deparment or divisions within the
same organisation

The form of communication may cut across

the lavels of Figure 4.1,you will
see two form of horizontal communication
Refers to the flow of information
between individuals of similar rank or
position,in diffirent department

In our example it is shown between

middle management levels in the two
department,but it could be between any
level in department A and the similar
level in the department B.
Refers to communication between one
level in one department and a diffirent
level in another

In our example it is between middle

management in department A and
foremen or supervisors in department