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Human Resources

Planning

Human Resources
Planning
HR Planning is the process of using an organisations
goals and strategy to forecast the organisations HR
needs in terms of finding, developing and keeping a
qualified workforce.

Answers the Question:


What must we do today
to be prepared for
tomorrow

HRM Planning
HRM planning is a process by which
an organization ensures that it has
the right number and kinds of
people, at the right time, capable
of effectively and efficiently
completing those tasks that will
help the organization to achieve its
overall strategic objectives.
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HRM &
Organizational Strategy
Human

resource planning ultimately


translate the organization's
overall
goals into number and types of
employees needed to meet those goals.

Employment planning cannot exist in

isolation . It must be linked to the


organizations overall strategy.
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Mission

Determining what business


the organization is in

Objectives
And goals

Setting goals and objective

Strategy

Determining how the goals and


objectives will be achieved

Structure

Determining what job need to be


done and by whom

People

Matching skills, knowledge


and abilities to require the 4-5
job

Planning Model

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Strategic Planning and HR


Planning
Strategic Planning
Procedures for making decisions about the organizations
long-term goals and strategies

Strategic Human Resources Management


The pattern of human resources deployments and activities
that enable an organization to achieve its strategic goals.
Strategy Formulation providing input as to what is
possible given the types and numbers of people available.
Strategy Implementation making primary resource
allocation decisions about structure, processes, and
human resources.
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Human Resources
Planning
HR
HR Planning
Planning

Strategic
Strategic Planning
Planning

--Reciprocal
Reciprocal and
and interdependent
interdependent relationship
relationship
-Environmental
-Environmental scanning
scanning critical
critical for
for both
both

Importance Of
HRP
FUTURE PERSONNEL NEEDS

1.

Surplus or deficiency in staff strength


Results in the anomaly of surplus labour with the lack of top
executives

COPING WITH CHANGE

2.

Enables an enterprise to cope with changes in competitive forces,


markets, technology, products & government regulations

CREATING HIGHLY TALENTED PERSONNEL

3.

HR manager must use his/her ingenuity to attract & retain


qualified & skilled personnel
Succession planning

PROTECTION OF WEAKER SECTIONS

4.

SC/ST candidates, physically handicapped, children of the socially


disabled & physically oppressed and backward class citizens.

Importance Of HRP
(contd.)
5.

INTERNATIONAL STRATEGIES

6.

Fill key jobs with foreign nationals and re-assignment of employees


from within or across national borders

FOUNDATION FOR PERSONNEL FUNCTIONS

7.

Provides information for designing & implementing recruiting,


selection, personnel movement(transfers,
promotions, layoffs) &
training & development

INCREASING INVESTMENTS IN HUMAN RESOURCES

8.

Human assets increase in value

RESISTANCE TO CHANGE AND MOVE

Proper planning is required to do this

Importance Of HRP
(contd.)
9. OTHER BENEFITS

Upper management has a better view of the HR


dimensions of business decision

More time is provided to locate talent

Better opportunities exist to include women &


minority groups in future growth plans

Better planning of assignments to develop


managers can be done

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Human Resources
Planning
Results of Inadequate HR Planning
-Vacant
-Vacant positions
positions create
create costly
costly inefficiencies
inefficiencies
-Overtime
-Overtime hours
hours at
at premium
premium cost
cost
-Simultaneous
-Simultaneous layoffs
layoffs and
and hiring
hiring
-Mass
-Mass layoffs
layoffs requiring:
requiring:
-severance
-severance pay
pay
-extended
-extended notice
notice periods
periods

Human Resources
Planning
Results of Inadequate HR Planning
-Ineffective
-Ineffective training,
training, development,
development, career
career planning
planning
-Turnover
-Turnover of
of high
high performers
performers
-Problems
-Problems with
with employment
employment equity
equity goals
goals
-Inability
-Inability to
to meet
meet operational
operational and
and strategic
strategic plans
plans

Factors Affecting
HRP
1. TYPE & STRATEGY OF ORGANISATION
Internal growth

Growth through M
&A

Informal

Formal

Reactive

Proactive

Inflexible

Flexible

Factors Affecting HRP


II. ORGANIZATIONAL GROWTH CYCLES & PLANNING

Embryonic/ Introduction stage No personnel


planning

Growth stage HR forecasting is essential

Maturity stage Planning more formalized & less


flexible

Declining stage Planning for layoff, retrenchment &


retirement

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15

Factors Affecting HRP


III. ENVIRONMENTAL UNCERTAINITIES

Political, social & economic changes

Balancing programmes are built into the HRM


programme through succession planning, promotion
channels, layoffs, flexi time, job sharing, retirement,
voluntary retirement scheme(VRS), etc.
IV. TIME HORIZONS
Short-term & Long-term plans
V. TYPE & QUALITY OF FORECASTING INFORMATION

Type of information which should be used in making


forecasts
VI. NATURE OF JOBS BEING FILLED

Difference in employing a shop-floor worker &4-16


a
managerial personnel

The Human Resource Planning Process


Corporate Analysis

Forecast Demand for Labor

Forecast Internal
Supply of Labor

Forecast External
Supply of Labor

Develop Plan to Match


Demand with Supply

The Human Resource Planning Model


EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT
INTERNAL ENVIRONMENT
Strategic Planning
Human Resource Planning

Forecasting Human
Resource
Demand
Demand =
Supply
No
Action

Comparison of
Requirements and
Availability
Surplus of Workers

Restricted Hiring, Reduced


Hours, Early Retirement,
Layoff

Forecasting Human
Resource
Supply
Shortage of
Workers
Recruitment
Selection

Elements of Effective HR
Planning
4. Monitor and Evaluate Results

3. Implement Plans to Balance Supply and Demand


2. Forecast Future Internal/External Candidates (Supply)
1. Forecast Future HR Needs (Demand)

Four Phases HR Planning


The overall process of HR planning generally
occurs in four closely related phases:
1. Assessing supply and demand
2. Developing objectives
3. Designing and implementing programs
4. Evaluating outcomes
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Phase 1: Assessing
Supply and Demand
Situation analysis and environmental scanning;
Forecasting HR demands

(Trend projection, unit -demand forecasting) ;


Reconciling the budget;
Forecast HR supply (skills inventory).

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Phase 2 : Developing
Objectives
Considering corporate strategy & goals;
The objectives set will also depend upon the

needs identified in phase 1;


Organizational culture and employee
attitudes such as commitment and customer
focus.

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Phase 3 : Designing and


Implementing Programs
To increase the supply of certain categories

of employees or to decrease the number of


current employees;
To make organizations more attractive to a
broader of applicants;
To improve the organizations socialization
efforts so that good employees want to
remain with the organization;
To downsize or right-size the organization.
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Phase 4 : Evaluating
Outcomes
To quantify the value of HR;
An HRIS facilitates rapid and frequent collection of

data;
Data collection is important for evaluating
programs and making adjustments;
Determining the effectiveness of HR plans;
Demonstrating the significance of planning and
HRM department itself to the organization as a
whole.
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Human Resource Planning


Technique Model
FORECASTING
FORECASTINGDEMAND
DEMAND

Considerations
Considerations

Product/service
Product/servicedemand
demand
Technology
Technology
Financial
Financialresources
resources
Absenteeism/turnover
Absenteeism/turnover
Organizational
Organizationalgrowth
growth
Management
philosophy
Management philosophy

Techniques
Techniques

Staffing
Staffingtables
tables
Markov
Markovanalysis
analysis
Skills
inventories
Skills inventories
Management
Managementinventories
inventories
Replacement
charts
Replacement charts
Succession
SuccessionPlanning
Planning

Techniques
Techniques

Trend
Trendanalysis
analysis
Regression
RegressionAnalysis
Analysis
Ratio
Analysis
Ratio Analysis
Managerial
Managerialjudgment
judgment
Delphi
technique
Delphi technique

Considerations
Considerations

Demographic
Demographicchanges
changes
Education
Educationof
ofthe
theworkforce
workforce
Labor
Mobility
Labor Mobility
Government
Governmentpolicies
policies
Unemployment
Unemploymentrate
rate

BALANCING
BALANCING
SUPPLY
SUPPLYAND
ANDDEMAND
DEMAND

(Shortage)
(Shortage)
Recruitment
Recruitment

Full-time
Full-time
Part-time
Part-time
Recalls
Recalls

(Surplus)
(Surplus)
Reductions
Reductions

Layoffs
Layoffs
Terminations
Terminations
Demotions
Demotions
Retirements
Retirements

FORECASTING
FORECASTINGSUPPLY
SUPPLY
Figure 4.3

Forecasting Demand for


Employees
Quantitative
QuantitativeMethods
Methods

Forecasting
Forecasting Demand
Demand
Qualitative
QualitativeMethods
Methods

Forecasting Future HR Needs


(Demand)
Quantitative Approaches
Trend analysis: Review past employment levels
Ratio analysis: Ratio of business activity/employees
Scatter plot: Graph of business activity/employees
Regression analysis: Statistical relationship
between business activity and employees

Quantitative Approach:
Trend Analysis

Trend analysis means


study of a firms past
employment needs
over a period of years
to predict future needs.
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Quantitative Approach: Trend


Analysis
Forecasting labor demand based on an organizational
index such as sales:
Select a business factor that best predicts human resources
needs.
Plot the business factor in relation to the number of
employees to determine the labor productivity ratio.
Compute the productivity ratio for the past five years.
Calculate human resources demand by multiplying the
business factor by the productivity ratio.
Project human resources demand out to the target year(s).

Quantitative Approach: Ratio


Analysis

A
forecasting
technique
for
determining
future
staff needs by using
ratios between sales
volume and number of
employees needed.

Quantitative Approach:
Regression Analysis
REGRESSION ANALYSIS

Drawing a statistical comparison of past relationship among


variables

This valuable forecasting technique enables us to plan and execute


recruitment, selection, training, and development programs in a
planned, proactive fashion to ensure the trained marketing staff are
on hand exactly when required by the organization.

Statistical relationship between no. of patients (business factor) &


employment level of nurses in a nursing home may be useful in
forecasting the no. of employees that will be needed if the no. of
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patients increases by say 20%

Qualitative Approach:
Managerial Judgment
In this all managers sit together, discuss and arrive at a
figure which would be the future demand for labour.
This technique may involve a bottom-up or top-down
approach. A combination of both could yield positive results.

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Qualitative Approach:
Delphi Technique
This technique is the method of forecasting personnel needs.
It solicits estimates of personnel needs from a group of
experts, usually managers.
The HRP experts act as intermediaries, summarize the
various responses and report the findings back to the experts.
Summaries and surveys are repeated until the experts opinion
begin to agree.
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Forecasting HR Supply
Forecasting the supply of labor is really two tasks:
Forecasting Internal Supply
The number and type of employees who will be in the firm
at some future date
Forecasting External Supply
The number and type of people who will be available for
hiring from the labor market at large

Forecasting Supply of
Employees: Internal Labor
Supply
Staffing Tables
Markov Analysis
Skill Inventories
Replacement Charts
Succession Planning

Forecasting Internal Labor


Supply
Staffing Tables
Graphic representations of all organizational
jobs, along with the numbers of employees
currently occupying those jobs and future
(monthly or yearly) employment
requirements.

Markov Analysis
A method for tracking the pattern of
employee movements through various jobs.

Forecasting Future HR Supply

Skills Inventories
manual
manual or
or computerized
computerized records
records
used
used to
to identify
identify internal
internal candidates
candidates for
for transfer
transfer
or
or promotion
promotion
summary
summary of
of each
each employees:
employees:
education
education
experience
experience
interests
interests
skills
skills

Forecasting Future HR Supply


Management Inventories
summary
summary of
of each
each management
management employees:
employees:
background
background
qualifications
qualifications
interests
interests
skills
skills
managerial
managerial responsibilities
responsibilities
duties
duties in
in current/previous
current/previous positions
positions
management
management training
training

Forecasting Future HR Supply


Replacement Charts
visual
visual representations
representations of
of likely
likely internal
internal
replacement
replacement employees
employees for
for each
each position
position
data
data on
on each
each candidate
candidate includes:
includes:
age
age
present
present performance
performance rating
rating
promotability
promotability status
status

PERSONNEL REPLACEM ENT CHART


P R E S ID E N T
V P P e rs o n n e l
* * * M r . R a h im ( 6 0 )
E x p e r ie n c e - 6 y e a r s

V P M a r k e t in g
0 0 M r . K a r im ( 5 2 )
E x p e r ie n c e - 5 y e a r s

V P F in a n c e
* M r. M a h b u b (4 5 )
E x p e r ie n c e - 1 y e a r s

V P P r o d u c t io n
0 0 M r . H a m id ( 4 3 )
E x p e r ie n c e - 4 y e a r s

* * * M s . R a h im a ( 5 5 )
E x p e r ie n c e - 9 y e a r s

* * * M r . S a fiq u e ( 4 2 )
E x p e r ie n c e - 3 y e a r s

* M r . R a fiq u e ( 5 4 )
E x p e r ie n c e - 6 y e a r s

** M r. E n a m u l (5 0 )
E x p e r ie n c e - 8 y e a r s

* * M r . K a b ir ( 4 7 )
E x p e r ie n c e - 2 y e a r s

0 0 M r . A r if ( 4 0 )
E x p e r ie n c e - 4 y e a r s

0 0 M s . N is h a t ( 5 6 )
E x p e r ie n c e - 8 y e a r s

* M r . F ir o z e ( 4 9 )
E x p e r ie n c e - 3 y e a r s

0 0 M r. M a m u n (5 1 )
E x p e r ie n c e - 1 y e a r s

* M r . Z a k ir ( 3 9 )
E x p e r ie n c e - 2 y e a r s

0 M r. N a y e e m (5 2 )
E x p e r ie n c e - 3 y e a r s

* M r . M o n ir ( 4 9 )
E x p e r ie n c e - 1 y e a r s

***Promotable now **Promotable in one year


* Potential for further promotion
00 Satisfactory, but not promotable 0 Dismiss

Forecasting Future HR Supply


Succession Planning

analyze
analyze demand
demand for
for managers/professionals
managers/professionals
audit
audit existing
existing executives,
executives, project
project future
future supply
supply
individual
individual career
career planning/career
planning/career counseling
counseling
accelerated
accelerated promotions
promotions
performance-related
performance-related training
training and
and development
development
planned
planned strategic
strategic recruitment
recruitment

Forecasting Future HR Supply


Forecasting Supply of External Candidates

general
general economic
economic conditions
conditions
national
national labour
labour market
market conditions
conditions
local
local labour
labour market
market conditions
conditions
occupational
occupational market
market conditions
conditions

Sources of Information About


External Labor Markets
Bureau of Statistics
Labor Force Survey

Planning and development agencies


Chambers of Commerce
Industry and trade group publications
State and local employment agencies

Human Resource Planning


Product
Demand

Labor
Productivity

Labor Demand

Internal
External
Labor Market Labor Market
Labor Supply

Conditions and Select Responses


1. Labor Demand Exceeds Labor Supply
Succession planning
Training or retraining
Subcontracting
Promotion from within
Recruitment from outside Use of overtime
Use of part-timers or temporary workers

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Human Resource Planning


Product
Demand

Labor
Productivity

Labor Demand

Internal
External
Labor Market Labor Market
Labor Supply

Conditions and Select Responses


2. Labor Supply Exceeds Labor Demand
Pay cuts
Layoffs
Reduced hours
Work Sharing
Voluntary early retirements
Inducements to quit (for example, severance pay)
3. Labor Demand Equals Labor Supply
Replacement of quits from inside or outside
Internal transfers and redeployment

4-45

Balancing Supply and


Demand
Dealing with a Labor Surplus

hiring
hiring freeze
freeze
early
early retirement
retirement programs
programs
reducing
reducing hours
hours (job
(job sharing,
sharing, reduced
reduced
workweek,
workweek, part-time
part-time work,
work, work
work sharing)
sharing)
internal
internal transfers
transfers
layoffs
layoffs
termination
termination with
with outplacement
outplacement assistance
assistance

Balancing Supply and


Demand
Dealing with a Labor Shortage

overtime
overtime
hiring
hiring temporary
temporary employees
employees
subcontracting
subcontracting work
work
external
external recruitment
recruitment
transfers
transfers
promotions
promotions

K
N
A
H
U
T O
Y
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