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BSSAP Protocol

Analysis
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Copyright 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

References

GSM TS 0808

Copyright 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page2

Objectives

Upon completion of this course, you will be able to:

Outline the main function of BSSAP protocol

Describe the main procedure of BSSAP

Copyright 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page3

Contents
1.

BSSAP Protocol Basic Principles

2.

BSSAP Main Procedure Analysis

Copyright 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page4

Contents
1.

BSSAP Protocol Basic Principles

2.

BSSAP Main Procedure Analysis

Copyright 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page5

Contents
1.

BSSAP Protocol Basic Principles


1.1 Protocol Stacks
1.2 BSSAP Protocol Functions
1.3 BSSAP Message Structure

Copyright 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page6

BSSAP Protocol of A Interface

Base Station Subsystem Application Part (BSSAP) is


the application protocol used on the A interface to
the GSM network. Information carried through this
interface includes:

Mobile station management


BSSAP

Base station management

Mobility management

Connection management

MSOFTX3000

BSC
A

Internal

interface

UMG8900

BSS

MSC/VLR

Copyright 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page7

Protocol Stacks

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Page8

Contents
1.

BSSAP Protocol Basic Principles


1.1 Protocol Stacks
1.2 BSSAP Protocol Functions
1.3 BSSAP Message Structure

Copyright 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page9

BSSAP Protocol
BSC side
To air interface
transmission
equipment

DTAP

A interface

MSC side

To other
process
within BSC

To other application
E.g. call control

BSSMAP

BSSMAP

Distribution Function
BSSAP

DTAP

Distribution Function
BSSAP

SCCP

SCCP

MTP

MTP

Copyright 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page10

Components of BSSAP Protocol

BSSAP protocol is composed of:

BSSMAP: Base Station Subsystem Management Application


Part;

BSSMAP messages control service process, and are handled by the


internal functional module of corresponding A interface.

DTAP: Direct Transfer Application Part

For DTAP messages, the A interface only functions as a transport


channel. At BSS side, DTAP messages are directly conveyed to a
radio channel; at NSS side, DTAP messages are carried to the
corresponding functional processing unit.

Distribution Function: distribute the message to BSSMAP/DTAP

Copyright 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page11

Classification of BSSMAP
Procedures
There are two types of BSSMAP procedures:

Connectionless procedures

It is a global procedure which concerns a complete cell or BSS,


or specific terrestrial circuits.
It uses the connectionless services of the SCCP

Connection-oriented procedures

It is a dedicated procedure which concerns a single dedicated


radio resource on the radio interface, or in the case of a multi
slot configuration, all radio resources allocated to one mobile
station.
It uses the connection oriented services of the SCCP, on the
connection which has been set up to support that call or
transaction

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Page12

Connectionless Procedures of
BSSMAP
Procedure

Messages

Blocking

BLOCK
BLOCKING ACKNOWLEDGE
UNBLOCK
UNBLOCKING ACKNOWLEDGE

Resource indication

RESOURCE REQUEST
RESOURCE INDICATION

Reset

RESET
RESET ACK

Handover candidate enquiry

HANDOVER CANDIDATE ENQUIRE


HANDOVER CANDIDATE RESPONSE

Paging

PAGING

Flow control

OVERLOAD

Reset circuit

RESET CIRCUIT
RESET CIRCUIT ACKNOWLEDGE

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Page13

Connection-oriented Procedures of
BSSMAP
Procedures

Messages

Assignment

ASSIGNMENT REQUEST
ASSIGNMENT COMPLETE
ASSIGNMENT FAILURE

Handover required indication

HANDOVER REQUIRED
HANDOVER REQUIRED REJECT

Handover resource allocation

HANDOVER REQUEST
HANDOVER REQUEST ACKNOWLEDGE
HANDOVER FAILURE

Handover execution

HANDOVER COMMAND
HANDOVER DETECT
HANDOVER COMPLETE
HANDOVER SUCCEEDED

Release

CLEAR REQUEST
CLEAR COMMAND
CLEAR COMPLETE

Classmark update

CLASSMARK UPDATE

Copyright 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page14

Connection-oriented Procedures of
BSSMAP
Procedures

Messages

Cipher mode control

CIPHER MODE COMMAND


CIPHER MODE COMPLETE

Trace invocation

MSC INVOKE TRACE


BSS INVOKE TRACE

Initial MS message

COMPLETE LAYER 3 INFORMATION

Queuing indication

QUEUING INDICATION

Data link control SAPI not equal to 0

DTAP message (in normal case)


SAPI N REJECT (in case of failure)

PDSS1 flow control

SUSPEND
RESUME

Circuit re-selection

CHANGE CIRCUIT
CHANGE CIRCUIT ACKNOWLEDGE

Location Aquisition

LOCATION INFORMATION COMMAND


LOCATION INFORMATION REPORT

Copyright 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page15

Contents
1.

BSSAP Protocol Basic Principles


1.1 Protocol Stacks
1.2 BSSAP Protocol Functions
1.3 BSSAP Message Structure

Copyright 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page16

BSSAP Message Structure


BSSAP message
Distribution data unit

Length indicator

Message body

The distribution data unit of BSSMAP message and


DTAP message are different.

The length indicator is 1 octet long.

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Page17

Distribution Data Unit of


BSSMAP
The Distribution Data Unit only consists of the

Discrimination parameter, which is set to the "Not


Transparent" value.

Discrimination Parameter

Bit 8 Bit 7 Bit 6 Bit 5 Bit 4 Bit 3 Bit 2 Bit 1


0

The discrimination bit D is set to 0, means "Not Transparent" .

Copyright 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page18

Distribution Data Unit of DTAP

The Distribution Data Unit consists of two parameters:

Discrimination parameter

Data Link Connection Identification (DLCI) parameter.


Discrimination Parameter

Bit 8 Bit 7 Bit 6 Bit 5 Bit 4 Bit 3 Bit 2 Bit 1


0

The discrimination bit D is set to 1, means "Transparent" .

Copyright 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page19

Distribution Data Unit of DTAP

The DLCI parameter is 1 octet long.

In the direction of MSC to BSC: to indicate the type of


data link connection to be used over the radio
interface.

In the direction of BSS to MSC: to indicate the type of


originating data link connection over the radio
interface.

Copyright 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page20

Contents
1.

BSSAP Protocol Basic Principles

2.

BSSAP Main Procedure Analysis

Copyright 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page21

Contents
2.

BSSAP Main Procedure Analysis


2.1 Paging
2.2 Initial MS Message
2.3 Cipher Mode Control
2.4 Assignment
2.5 Handover
2.6 Release
2.7 DTAP Message

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Page22

Paging
MS

BSS

MSC

BSSMAP: PAGING
RR: PAGING REQUEST
TYPE 1, 2, 3
First SABM frame
(PAGING RESPONSE)

BSSMAP: COMPLETE
LAYER 3 INFORMATION
( PAGING RESPONSE)

SABM: Set asynchronous balanced mode command

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Page23

PAGING Message
Information Element
Message Type

type

Direction

MSC-

Description

>BSC
IMSI

MSC>BSC

TMSI

MSC>BSC

Cell Identifier List

MSC>BSC

This message is sent from the MSC to the BSS and contains

Channel Needed

MSC-

sufficient information to allow the paging


>BSC message to be
transmitted by the correct cells at the correct time.

Copyright 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page24

Contents
2.

BSSAP Main Procedure Analysis


2.1 Paging
2.2 Initial MS Message
2.3 Cipher Mode Control
2.4 Assignment
2.5 Handover
2.6 Release
2.7 DTAP Message

Copyright 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page25

Initial MS Message Procedure

When BSC receive the radio interface initial L3


message from the MS (piggybacked on the SABM
frame), BSC will setup the SCCP connection via
CR/CC message, and passing the entire radio
interface initial L3 message to the MSC using
BSSMAP COMPLETE LAYER 3 INFORMATION
message which encapsulated in SCCP CR message.

Copyright 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page26

Initial MS Message Procedure

The radio initial L3 message can be:

CM SERVICE REQUEST,

PAGING RESPONSE,

CM REESTABLISHMENT REQUEST,

LOCATION UPDATING REQUEST,

IMSI DETACH,

NOTIFICATION RESPONSE,

IMMEDIATE SETUP

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Page27

Initial MS Message Procedure


MS

BSS
First SABM frame
(initial L3 message: CM
SERVICE REQUEST,
LOCATION UPDATING
REQUEST, PAGING
RESPONSE, IMSI
DETACH etc. )

MSC

SCCP: CR
( BSSMAP: COMPLETE
LAYER 3 INFORMATION
(CM SERVICE REQUEST,
LOCATION UPDATING
REQUEST, PAGING
RESPONSE, IMSI DETACH
etc. ) )
SCCP: CC

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Page28

COMPLETE LAYER 3
INFORMATION
Information Element
Message Type

type

Direction

BSC-

Description

>MSC
Cell Identifier

BSC>MSC

Layer 3 Information

BSC>MSC

Choose Channel

BSC>MSC

Location Information

BSC>MSC

Copyright 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

paging response
etc.
the channel
rate/type on which
the initial layer 3
message was
received
to provide
Location Services
related
information

Page29

Contents
2.

BSSAP Main Procedure Analysis


2.1 Paging
2.2 Initial MS Message
2.3 Cipher Mode Control
2.4 Assignment
2.5 Handover
2.6 Release
2.7 DTAP Message

Copyright 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page30

Cipher Mode Control Procedure

The cipher mode control procedure allows the MSC to


pass cipher mode information to the BSS to select and
load the user data and signalling encryption device
with the appropriate key.

If the BSS is unable to support the ciphering algorithm


specified in the CIPHER MODE COMMAND message
then it shall return a CIPHER MODE REJECT message
with Cause value "Ciphering algorithm not supported".

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Page31

Cipher Mode Control


MS

BSS

MSC

BSSMAP: CIPHER MODE


COMMAND
RR: CIPHER MODE
COMMAND
RR: CIPHER MODE
COMPLETE

BSSMAP: CIPHER MODE


REJECT

BSSMAP: CIPHER MODE


COMPLETE

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Page32

CIPHER MODE COMMAND


Information Element
Message Type

type

Direction

MSC-

Description

>BSC
Encryption Information

MSC>BSC

Cipher Response Mode

MSC>BSC

Copyright 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

This information
element is used
by the MSC to
indicate whether
the IMEI is to be
included in the
CIPHERING MODE
COMPLETE
message to be
sent by the Mobile
Station.

Page33

Encryption Information IE
8

Element identifier

octet 1

Length

octet 2

Permitted algorithms

octet 3

Key

octet 4-N

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Page34

Encryption Information IE

Permitted algorithms:

if the bit set to 1, the BSC will use the algorithm.

If the bit set to 0, the BSC wont use the algorithm.

Bit 8

Bit 7

Bit 6

Bit 5

Bit 4

Bit 3

Bit 2

Bit 1

0 or

0 or

0 or

0 or

0 or

0 or

0 or

0 or

GSM
A5/7

GSM
A5/6

GSM
A5/5

GSM
A5/4

GSM
A5/3

GSM
A5/2

GSM
A5/1

No
encr
yptio
n

Key:

It shall be present if at least one of the A5 encryption algorithms


is permitted. When present, the key shall be 8 octets long.

Copyright 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page35

CIPHER MODE COMPLETE


Information Element
Message Type

type

Direction

BSC-

Description

>MSC
Layer 3 Message Contents

BSC>MSC

Chosen Encryption
Algorithm

BSC>MSC

Copyright 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

To pass the
contents of radio
interface
messages from MS
to MSC.
A specific
algorithm

Page36

CIPHER MODE REJECT


Information Element
Message Type

type

Direction

BSC-

Description

>MSC
Cause

BSC>MSC

Typical Cause values are:

Ciphering algorithm not supported,

Invalid message contents

Copyright 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page37

Contents
2.

BSSAP Main Procedure Analysis


2.1 Paging
2.2 Initial MS Message
2.3 Cipher Mode Control
2.4 Assignment
2.5 Handover
2.6 Release
2.7 DTAP Message

Copyright 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page38

Assignment Procedure

The purpose of the assignment procedure is to


ensure that the correct dedicated radio resource(s)
can be allocated or reallocated to a MS that requires
it.

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Page39

Assignment
MS

BSS

RR: ASSIGNMENT
COMMAND
RR: ASSIGNMENT
COMPLETE
RR: ASSIGNMENT
FAILURE

MSC

BSSMAP: ASSIGNMENT
REQUEST

BSSMAP: ASSIGNMENT
COMPLETE
BSSMAP: ASSIGNMENT
FAILURE

Copyright 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page40

ASSIGNMENT REQUEST
Information Element

type

Directio

Description

n
Message Type

MSC>BSC

Channel Type

MSC>BSC

Priority

MSC>BSC

Speech, data or
signalling;
Speech: Full rate or
half rate;
Data: full rate or half
rate and maximum
channel numbers,
data rates;
Signalling: SDCCH
channel or full rate,
half rate channel
The priority of the
request.

Circuit
Code
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MSCCopyright
Identity
2008 Huawei
Technologies Co.,
reserved.

Page41

ASSIGNMENT COMPLETE
Information Element
Message Type

type

Direction

BSC-

Description

>MSC
RR Cause

BSC>MSC

Circuit Identity Code

BSC>MSC

Cell Identifier

BSC>MSC

Chosen Channel

BSC>MSC

Chosen Encryption

Algorithm
Circuit Pool

BSC>MSC

BSC>MSC

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Page42

ASSIGNMENT FAILURE
Information Element
Message Type

type

Direction

BSC-

Description

>MSC
Cause

RR Cause

BSC>MSC

Circuit Pool

BSC>MSC

Circuit Pool List

BSC>MSC

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Page43

Typical Cause Values

radio interface message failure,

O and M intervention,

equipment failure,

no radio resource available,

requested terrestrial resource unavailable,

requested transcoding/rate adaption unavailable,

terrestrial resource already allocated,

invalid message contents,

radio interface failure - reversion to old channel,

directed retry,

circuit pool mismatch,

switch circuit pool.

requested speech version unavailable.

Copyright 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page44

Contents
2.

BSSAP Main Procedure Analysis


2.1 Paging
2.2 Initial MS Message
2.3 Cipher Mode Control
2.4 Assignment
2.5 Handover
2.6 Release
2.7 DTAP Message

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Page45

Handover Procedure

Handover procedure include:

Handover required indication

HANDOVER REQUIRED

HANDOVER REQUIRED REJECT

Handover resource allocation

HANDOVER REQUEST

HANDOVER REQUEST ACKNOWLEDGE

HANDOVER FAILURE

Handover execution

HANDOVER COMMAND

HANDOVER DETECT

HANDOVER COMPLETE

HANDOVER SUCCEEDED

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Page46

Handover
MS

BSS

Measurement
report form MS

HANDOVER
COMMAND

MSC

BSS

MS

BSSMAP: HANDOVER
BSSMAP: HANDOVER
REQUIRED
REQUEST
BSSMAP: HANDOVER
BSSMAP: HANDOVER REQUEST ACK
COMMAND
BSSMAP: HANDOVER
DETECT
BSSMAP: HANDOVER
BSSMAP: HANDOVER COMPLETE
SUCCEEDED
BSSMAP: CLEAR
COMMAND
BSSMAP: CLEAR
COMPLETE

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Page47

HANDOVER
ACCESS
HANDOVER
COMPLETE

HANDOVER REQUIRED
Information Element

type

Directio

Description

n
Message Type

BSC>MSC

Cause

BSC>MSC

Cell Identifier List

BSC>MSC

Circuit Pool List

BSC>MSC

Current Channel Type 1


Speech Version (Used)

O
O

BSC-

Signalling, data or

>MSC

speech

BSC>MSC

Old BSC to New BSC

BSC-

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Page48

HANDOVER REQUIRED

Typical Cause values are:

uplink quality,

uplink strength,

downlink quality,

downlink strength,

distance,

better cell,

response to MSC invocation,

O&M intervention,

directed retry,

switch circuit pool,

traffic,

preemption.

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Page49

HANDOVER REQUIRED REJECT


Information Element

type

Directio

Description

n
Message Type

MSC>BSC

Cause

Typical Cause values are:

MSC>BSC

Equipment failure,

No radio resource available,

Requested terrestrial resource unavailable,

Invalid message contents,

Requested transcoding/rate adaptation unavailable,

O and M intervention.

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Page50

HANDOVER REQUEST (1)


Information Element

type

Directio

Description

n
Message Type

MSC>BSC

Channel Type

MSC>BSC

Encryption Information

MSC>BSC

Classmark Information

1/2
Cell Identifier (serving)

MSC>BSC

MSC>BSC

Circuit Identity Code

MSC>BSC

Cell Identifier (target)

MSC-

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Page51

HANDOVER REQUEST (2)


Information Element

type

Directio

Description

n
Cause

MSC>BSC

Classmark Information

3
Current Channel Type 1

MSC>BSC

MSC>BSC

Speech Version (Used)

MSC>BSC

Chosen Encryption

Algorithm (serving)
Old BSC to New BSC
Information

MSC>BSC

MSC>BSC

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Page52

HANDOVER REQUEST (3)

Typical Cause values are:

uplink quality,

uplink strength,

downlink quality,

downlink strength,

distance,

better cell,

response to MSC invocation,

O and M intervention,

directed retry,

switch circuit pool,

traffic,

preemption.

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Page53

HANDOVER REQUEST ACK


Information Element

type

Directio

Description

n
Message Type

BSC>MSC

L3 Information

BSC>MSC

Chosen Channel

BSC-

Carrying a radio
interface HANDOVER
COMMAND message
channel rate/type

>MSC
Chosen Encryption

Information
Circuit Pool

BSC>MSC

BSC>MSC

Speech Version
(chosen)

BSC>MSC

Copyright
Identity
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Technologies Co.,
reserved.
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Code
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BSC-

Page54

HANDOVER COMMAND
Information Element

type

Directio

Description

n
Message Type

MSC>BSC

L3 Information

MSC>BSC

Cell Identifier

MSC-

Carrying a radio
interface HANDOVER
COMMAND message
channel rate/type

>BSC

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Page55

HANDOVER DETECT
Information Element

type

Directio

Description

n
Message Type

BSC>MSC

This message is sent from the BSS to the MSC via


the relevant SCCP connection.

It indicates that the correct MS has successfully


accessed the target cell.

Copyright 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page56

HANDOVER COMPLETE
Information Element

type

Directio

Description

n
Message Type

BSC>MSC

RR Cause

This message is sent from

BSC-

This element is passed


from the radio
>MSC
interface to the MSC
transparently
the BSS to the
MSC via

the relevant SCCP connection.

It indicates that the correct MS has successfully


accessed the target cell.

Copyright 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page57

HANDOVER SUCCEEDED
Information Element

type

Directio

Description

n
Message Type

MSC>BSC

This message is sent from the MSC to the old BSS via
the relevant SCCP connection.

It indicates that the correct MS has successfully


accessed the target cell.

Copyright 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page58

HANDOVER FAILURE
Information Element

type

Directio

Description

n
Message Type

BSC>MSC

Cause

BSC>MSC

RR Cause

BSC-

This element is passed


from the radio
>MSC
interface to the MSC
transparently

Circuit Pool

BSC>MSC

Circuit Pool List

BSC>MSC

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Page59

HANDOVER FAILURE

Typical Cause values are:

radio interface message failure;

O and M intervention;

Equipment failure;

no radio resource available;

requested terrestrial resource unavailable;

requested transcoding/rate adaption unavailable;

terrestrial resource already allocated;

invalid message contents;

radio interface failure - reversion to old channel;

ciphering algorithm not supported;

circuit pool mismatch;

switch circuit pool;

requested speech version unavailable.

Copyright 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page60

Contents
2.

BSSAP Main Procedure Analysis


2.1 Paging
2.2 Initial MS Message
2.3 Cipher Mode Control
2.4 Assignment
2.5 Handover
2.6 Release
2.7 DTAP Message

Copyright 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page61

Release Procedure

There are 3 types of release reason:

Release Due To Transaction Completion

Release due to BSS generated reason

Release due to successful handover

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Page62

Release
MS

BSS

MSC

BSSMAP: CLEAR REQUEST


BSSMAP: CLEAR COMMAND
BSSMAP: CLEAR COMPLETE
RR: CHANNEL RELEASE
L2 Message: DISC
L2 Message: UA

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Page63

CLEAR REQUEST
Information Element

type

Directio

Description

n
Message Type

BSC>MSC

Cause
Typical

Cause values Mare:

BSC>MSC

Radio interface message failure,

O and M intervention,

Equipment failure,

Joined group call channel,

Protocol error between BSS and MSC,

Preemption.

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Page64

CLEAR COMMAND
Information Element

type

Directio

Description

n
Message Type

MSC>BSC

Cause
Typical

Cause values Mare:

MSC>BSC

Call control,

O and M intervention,

Equipment failure,

Handover successful

protocol error between BSS and MSC,

Copyright 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page65

CLEAR COMPLETE
Information Element

type

Directio

Description

n
Message Type

BSC>MSC

This message is sent from the BSS to the MSC to


inform the MSC that the associated dedicated
resource(s) has been successfully cleared.

The message is sent via the BSSAP SCCP connection


associated with the dedicated resource(s).

Copyright 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page66

Contents
2.

BSSAP Main Procedure Analysis


2.1 Paging
2.2 Initial MS Message
2.3 Cipher Mode Control
2.4 Assignment
2.5 Handover
2.6 Release
2.7 DTAP Message

Copyright 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page67

DTAP Message

DTAP message is used to transfer the L3 message between


MS and MSC/MSC Server, using connection-oriented SCCP
service.

The L3 message is encapsulated into DTAP message


besides the following message which is transfer by BSSMAP
COMPLETE LAYER 3 INFORMATION:

CM SERVICE REQUEST,

PAGING RESPONSE,

CM REESTABLISHMENT REQUEST,

LOCATION UPDATING REQUEST,

IMSI DETACH,

NOTIFICATION RESPONSE,

IMMEDIATE SETUP

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Page68

DTAP
MS

BSS

MSC

DTAP: SETUP
L3 message: SETUP
L3 Message: CALL
CONFIRM
DTAP: CALL CONFIRMATION

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Page69

Summary

BSSAP protocol is composed of BSSMAP and DTAP


part

BSSMAP message will be interpreted and processed by


BSC.

The DTAP information is not interpreted by the BSS.

Copyright 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page70

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