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What are Learning Styles?

Information enters your brain

three main ways: sight, hearing
and touch, which one you use
the most is called your Learning
Visual Learners learn by sight
Auditory Learners learn by
Tactile Learners (kinesthetic)
learn by touch

Visual Learners

Prefer to see information such as

pictures, diagrams, cartoons,
Picture words and concepts they hear
as images
Easily distracted in lecture with no
visual aids
Overwhelmed with intense visuals
accompanied by lecture
Benefit from using charts, maps,
notes, and flash cards when studying

Let me see it!

Auditory Learners

Prefer to hear information spoken

Can absorb a lecture with little effort
May not need careful notes to learn.
Often avoid eye contact in order to
May read aloud to themselves
Like background music when they study

Let me hear it!

Tactile or Kinesthetic Learners

Prefer touch as their primary mode for

taking in information
In traditional lecture situations, they
should write out important facts
Create study sheets connected to vivid
Okay, I
get it
Role-playing can help them learn and now.
remember important ideas

Let me touch it!


Possess impatient and hasty attitude

Have strong inquisitive instinct

Act fast and quick to response

Like to search for new experiences

Energetic, flexible & open minded

Possess strong intrinsic motivation

Possess critical and creative thinking skills


Like to think by themselves

Possess critical & creative thinking skills

Like to interpret and evaluate concept, principle,

conclusion, project

Like to search for universal truth.

Possess cautious, alert attitude

Good listeners, slow to response

Learn and work in a systematic way

Do not make decision or conclusion hastily


Possess rational and logical thinking

Possess disciplined attitude and obj character
Not creative but emphasize the use of left brain
Like to design hypotheses, test them and draw
conclusion based on concrete proofs
Like to use for causes and effects
Interested to study the new phenomena in the


Those who possess practical attitude and emphasize

facts and truth based on existing theories, laws or
Believe in seeing better than hearing
Emphasize how to use, as well as usage of certain
Like to make comparison

Mastery Learning

Students can master any topic

IF if it is broken down into small chunks & if they are
given enough time to learn at their own pace
Assumes that almost all students can and will master a
great deal of what is taught;
if instruction is approached systematically;
if the students are helped when and where they have
learning difficulties;
if they are given sufficient time to achieve mastery.

Implication of Mastery Learning in T&L

Teacher use suitable strategies to match individuals

learning style
Teacher look into factors that affect learning style (5
Environment (light, sound)
Psychology (left/right brain, impulsive mood)
Emotion (motivation, responsibility)
Social (indivdual, pair, group, adult)
Physiology (nutrition, learning time)
Emphasizes aspect of individual differences
Use of various teaching aids

Rational Implementation of M.L in school


M.L is not new. Already implement in KBSR &



Enable pupils to master what is being taught


School in developed countries; have evidence

that pupils perf. & achievement are relatively
higher than general teaching method.

Strategy of t&L for Mastery Learning


Determine learning outcomes

Planning explicit learning objective

i.e. based on observation of pupils behaviour

Explicit learning obj.: contain elements that can be measured

during evaluation


Use suitable learning materials to suit different learning



Evaluate learning test by: diagnostic test & formative test


Carry out remedial activities (not fully mastered)

Enrichment activities (hav attained learn.obj.


Implications in T&L

Teacher should realize that every pupils

learning style is different from others.
Therefore, there is no single perfect
teaching method to teach all the pupil in a
certain class.