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EE 2303 TRANSMISSION AND

DISTRIBUTION

OBJECTIVE
To become familiar with the function of different
components
Distribution

used

in

Transmission

levels

of

power

modeling of these components.

and

systems

and

OBJECTIVES

To develop expression for computation


of fundamental parameters of lines.
To categorize the lines into different
classes and develop equivalent circuits
for these classes.
To analyse the voltage distribution in
insulator strings and cables and
methods to improve the same.

INTRODUCTION

INTRODUCTION

INTRODUCTION
Various levels such as generation, transmission
and distribution.

INTRODUCTION
HVDC
High voltage direct current (HVDC) is used to transmit
large amounts of power over long distances or for
interconnections between asynchronous grids. When
electrical energy is required to be transmitted over very
long distances, it is more economical to transmit using
direct current instead of alternating current.

INTRODUCTION
EHV AC transmission
Hydro-electric and coal or oil-fired stations are located very far from
load centres for various
reasons which requires the transmission of the generated electric
power over very long distances.
This requires very high voltages for transmission. The very rapid
strides taken by development
of dc transmission since 1950 is playing a major role in extra-longdistance transmission,
complementing or supplementing EHV AC transmission.

INTRODUCTION

Technical performance and reliability


Considerations in the design of a power line:
The amount of active power it has to transmit
The distance over which the power must be
carried
The cost of the power line
Aesthetic considerations, urban congestion,
ease of installation, expected load growth

INTRODUCTION
Application of HVDC transmission system
HVDC Light, is utilising state of the art semiconductors,
control and cable insulation and can offer many new
transmission opportunities as has been demonstrated by
actual projects above. It offers a lot of possibilities to
enhance the power systems.
Wind power, even big parks, can easily be connected to
the grid. In many cases HVDC Light can give new
opportunities to trade electric energy in the new
deregulated markets.
As HVDC Light has been developed to minimise
environmental impact and impact on the connecting grids,
the licence procedure is generally more favourable than
more traditional solutions.

INTRODUCTION
FACTS

INTRODUCTION

TCSC
The Thyristor Controlled Series Capacitor (TCSC) seems to be one
of the members within the FACTS family, beside the SVC that was
established long ago, which has attracted the most interest so far.
One reason may be that a distinctive quality of the TCSC concept is
that it uses an extremely simple main circuit topology.
The capacitor is inserted directly in series with the transmission line
and the thyristor controlled inductor is mounted directly in parallel
with the capacitor.
Thus no interfacing equipment like e.g. high voltage transformers is
required. This makes TCSC much more economical than some
other competing FACTS technologies.

INTRODUCTION
SVC
Static variable capacitor
Parallel-connected static var generator or
absorber
Output is adjusted to exchange capacitive or
inductive current.
Maintain or control specific parameters of the
electrical power system (typically bus voltage).
Thyristor-based Controllers
Lower cost alternative to STATCOM

INTRODUCTION
STATCOM
Static Synchronous Compensator
(STATCOM)
Parallel-connected static var compensator
Capacitive or inductive output current
controlled independently of the ac system
voltage

INTRODUCTION
UPFC
Unified power flow controller (UPFC) is
one of the FACTS devices, which can
control power system parameters such as
terminal voltage, line impedance and
phase angle. Therefore, it can be used not
only for power flow control, but also for
power system stabilizing control.