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UNIT 3

MODELLING AND
PERFORMANCE OF
TRANSMISSION LINES

Introduction
Analyze the performance of single phase
and balanced three-phase transmission
lines under normal steady-state operating
conditions.
Expression of voltage and current at any
point along the line are developed, where
the nature of the series impedance and
shunt admittance is taken into account.
The performance of transmission line is
measured based on the voltage regulation
and line loadability.

Transmission Line
Representation

A line is treated as two-port network for


which the ABCD parameters and an
equivalent circuit are derived.

Transmission Line
Representation

To facilitate the performance calculations


relating to a transmission line, the line is
approximated as a seriesparallel
interconnection of the relevant
parameters.
Consider a transmission line to have:

A sending end and a receiving end;


A series resistance and inductance; and
A shunt capacitance and conductance
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Transmission Line
Representation

The relation between sendingend and


receivingend quantities of the twoport
network can be written as:

VS AVR BI R
I S CVR DI R
VS A B
I C D

VR
I
R

Transmission Line
Representation

Short Line Model

Medium Line Model

< 80 km in length
Shunt effects are neglected.
Range from 80240 km in length
Shunt capacitances are lumped at a few
predetermined points along the line.

Long Line Model

>240 km in length.
Uniformly distributed parameters.
Shunt branch consists of both capacitance and
conductance.
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Short Line Model

Short Line Model


Z z r j L
R jX L
where :
r per - phase resistance
L per - phase inductance
line length

Short Line Model

Thus, the ABCD parameters are easily


obtained from KVL and KCL equations as
below:

VS VR ZI R
IS IR
VS 1 Z VR
I 0 1 I
R
S
A D 1 pu ; B Z ; C 0 S

Medium Line Model Nominal


Circuit

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Medium Line Model


Shunt capacitor is considered.
of shunt capacitor considered to be
lumped at each end of the line circuit
Total shunt admittance, Y

Y g jC
where :
C line to neutral capacitance per km
g line conductance per km
line length

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Medium Line Model


Under

normal condition,

shunt conductance per unit length (the


leakage current) over the insulators and
due to corona is negligible
Thus, g = 0

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Medium Line Model

To obtain ABCD parameters, the current in


the series branch is denoted as IL.

Using KCL and KVL, the sendingend


voltage is:
VS VR ZI L
..1
Y
I L I R VR
2
From 1 and 2
Y

VS VR Z I R VR
2

ZY

1
VR ZI R
2

.. 2

.. 3
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Medium Line Model

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Medium Line Model

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Medium Line Model

Using KCL to obtain equation for sending


end current:
Y
I S I L VS
.. 4
2
Substitute 2 and 3 into 4
Y
VRY
YZ
IS IR
1
VR ZI R
2
2

2
YZ
YZ

Y 1
.. 5
VR 1
IR
4
2

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Medium Line Model

Thus, the ABCD parameters can be


obtained from equation [3] and [5];

VS
I
S

ZY
1

ZY

Y 1

VR

ZY I R

1

2

ZY
ZY

A D 1
pu ; B Z ; C Y 1
S
2
4

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Medium Line Model


ABCD constant are complex since model
is a symmetrical two-port network
A=D
The determinant of the transmission
matrix is unity(1)
AD BC = 1 (Prove this!)

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Medium Line Model

The receiving and quantities can be


expressed in terms of the sending end
quantities

VR
D
I C

VS
I
S

If, ignore the shunt capacitance of the TL,


the shunt admittance, Y=0, it become the
short transmission line constant.
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Medium Line Model Nominal


T Circuit

Find the ABCD Parameters for


this circuit using KVL and KCL

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Long Line Model

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Long Line Model


The shunt capacitance and series
impedance must be treated as distributed
quantities
The V and I on the line must be found
by solving the differential equation of the
transmission line.

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Long Line Model


z R j L

zy

y g jC
Zc

z
y

sinh
Z' Z
Z c sinh

Y ' Y tanh 2 1

tanh
2 2 2
Zc
2
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Long Line Model

If l <<0 sinh (l )/( l ) & tanh (l /2)/ (l /2) 1.0

The ABCD

parameters:

VS A B VR
I C D I
R
S
Z 'Y '
A
1
B Z'
2
Z 'Y '
Z 'Y '
C Y '
1
D
1
2
4

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ABCD Parameters
A

Parameters

Short
Line

ABCD

Medium

Medium
T
Long
Line

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Remember!

Complex Power

Vline 3 V phase

Sending end power

S S 3 3VS phase I S* phase


or
S S 3 3VS line I S* line

Receiving end power

S R 3 3VR phase I R* phase


or
S R 3 3VR line I

*
R line

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Transmission Line
Efficiency

Total FullLoad Line Losses

S L 3 S S 3 S R 3

Transmission Line Efficiency

PR 3
PS 3

PR 3
PS 3

100

Note that only Real Power are taken into account!


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Voltage Regulation
ABCD parameters can be used to describe
the variation of line voltage with line
loading.
Voltage regulation is the change in voltage
at the receiving end of the line when the
load varies from noload to a specified
fullload at a specified power factor, while
the sending end is held constant.

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Voltage Regulation
% VR

VRNL

VRNL VRFL
VRFL

VS
A

Noload
receivingend voltage

100

VRFL VR
Fullload
receivingend voltage
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VS AVRNL BI R
No Load Condition : I R 0
Thus;
Vs
VRNL
A
Short Line
Medium Line

VRNL VS
VRNL

Long Line

VS
ZY
1

??
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Voltage Regulation
The effect of load power factor on voltage
regulation is illustrated in phasor diagram.
The phasor diagrams are graphical
representation of lagging, unity and
leading power factor.

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Voltage Regulation
The higher (worse) voltage regulation
occurs for the lagging pf load where VRNL
exceeds VRFL by the larger amount.
A smaller or even negative voltage
regulation occurs in leading pf load.

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Voltage Regulation
In practice, transmission line voltages
decrease when heavily loaded and
increase when lightly loaded.
EHV lines are maintained within 5% of
rated voltage, corresponding to about
10% voltage regulation.
10% voltage regulation for lower voltage
lines also considered good operating
practice.

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Line Loadability
Another important issue that affect
transmission line performance.
3 major line loading limits are:

Thermal limit

Voltage drop limit

Short transmission lines [<80 km length]


Longer line length [ 80300 km length]

Steady-state stability limit

Line length over 300 km

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Example

A 220-kV, three-phase transmission line


is 40 km long. The resistance per phase
is 0.15 /km and the inductance per
phase is 1.5915 mH/km. The shunt
capacitance is negligible. Use the line
model to find the voltage and power at
the sending end and the voltage
regulation and efficiency when the line is
supplying a three-phase load of
a)
b)

381 MVA at 0.8 pf lagging at 220 kV


381 MVA at 0.8 pf leading at 220 kV
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Solution (a)

Given
R = 0.15 /km , L = 1.5915 mH/km
S =381 MVA with pf 0.8 lag
VR(line)=220 kV

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Find sending end voltage, VS VR ZI R


Therefore, find VR , Z, and I R

VR phase

VR Line

3
2200 o kV

3
1270o kV

Z 40km

The series impedance per phase;


r j L l
0.15 j 2 50 1.5915m 40
6 j 20

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S 381 MVA, cos -1 0.8 36.87 o


Thus ,
S R 38136.87 o MVA 304.8MW j 228.6 M var
SR 3VR(Phase) I*R
SR
I
3VR(Phase)
*
R

IR

S*R
381 36.87 o MVA

*
3VR(Phase)
31270 o kV
1000 36.87 o A

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Therefore,
VS(Phase) VR Phase ZI R

1270o kV 6 j 20 1000 36.87 o A

144.34.93o kV
VS Line 3 VS Phase
3 144.3
250V

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Find Sending - end Power, SS 3VS Line I S


I S I R 1000 36.87 o A
SS 3VR(Phase) I*R

3 144.334.93o V 100036.87 o A
322.8MW j 288.6 M var

43341.8o MVA

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Voltage Regulation,
%VR

Effiency,

VRNL VRFL
VRFL

100

250 220

100
220
13.6%

PR
%
100
PS
304.8

100
322.8
94.4%

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