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You are on page 1of 41

MODELLING AND

PERFORMANCE OF

TRANSMISSION LINES

Introduction

Analyze the performance of single phase

and balanced three-phase transmission

lines under normal steady-state operating

conditions.

Expression of voltage and current at any

point along the line are developed, where

the nature of the series impedance and

shunt admittance is taken into account.

The performance of transmission line is

measured based on the voltage regulation

and line loadability.

Transmission Line

Representation

which the ABCD parameters and an

equivalent circuit are derived.

Transmission Line

Representation

relating to a transmission line, the line is

approximated as a seriesparallel

interconnection of the relevant

parameters.

Consider a transmission line to have:

A series resistance and inductance; and

A shunt capacitance and conductance

4

Transmission Line

Representation

receivingend quantities of the twoport

network can be written as:

VS AVR BI R

I S CVR DI R

VS A B

I C D

VR

I

R

Transmission Line

Representation

< 80 km in length

Shunt effects are neglected.

Range from 80240 km in length

Shunt capacitances are lumped at a few

predetermined points along the line.

>240 km in length.

Uniformly distributed parameters.

Shunt branch consists of both capacitance and

conductance.

6

Z z r j L

R jX L

where :

r per - phase resistance

L per - phase inductance

line length

obtained from KVL and KCL equations as

below:

VS VR ZI R

IS IR

VS 1 Z VR

I 0 1 I

R

S

A D 1 pu ; B Z ; C 0 S

Circuit

10

Shunt capacitor is considered.

of shunt capacitor considered to be

lumped at each end of the line circuit

Total shunt admittance, Y

Y g jC

where :

C line to neutral capacitance per km

g line conductance per km

line length

11

Under

normal condition,

leakage current) over the insulators and

due to corona is negligible

Thus, g = 0

12

the series branch is denoted as IL.

voltage is:

VS VR ZI L

..1

Y

I L I R VR

2

From 1 and 2

Y

VS VR Z I R VR

2

ZY

1

VR ZI R

2

.. 2

.. 3

13

14

15

end current:

Y

I S I L VS

.. 4

2

Substitute 2 and 3 into 4

Y

VRY

YZ

IS IR

1

VR ZI R

2

2

2

YZ

YZ

Y 1

.. 5

VR 1

IR

4

2

16

obtained from equation [3] and [5];

VS

I

S

ZY

1

ZY

Y 1

VR

ZY I R

1

2

ZY

ZY

A D 1

pu ; B Z ; C Y 1

S

2

4

17

ABCD constant are complex since model

is a symmetrical two-port network

A=D

The determinant of the transmission

matrix is unity(1)

AD BC = 1 (Prove this!)

18

expressed in terms of the sending end

quantities

VR

D

I C

VS

I

S

the shunt admittance, Y=0, it become the

short transmission line constant.

19

T Circuit

this circuit using KVL and KCL

20

21

The shunt capacitance and series

impedance must be treated as distributed

quantities

The V and I on the line must be found

by solving the differential equation of the

transmission line.

22

z R j L

zy

y g jC

Zc

z

y

sinh

Z' Z

Z c sinh

Y ' Y tanh 2 1

tanh

2 2 2

Zc

2

23

The ABCD

parameters:

VS A B VR

I C D I

R

S

Z 'Y '

A

1

B Z'

2

Z 'Y '

Z 'Y '

C Y '

1

D

1

2

4

24

ABCD Parameters

A

Parameters

Short

Line

ABCD

Medium

Medium

T

Long

Line

25

Remember!

Complex Power

Vline 3 V phase

or

S S 3 3VS line I S* line

or

S R 3 3VR line I

*

R line

26

Transmission Line

Efficiency

S L 3 S S 3 S R 3

PR 3

PS 3

PR 3

PS 3

100

27

Voltage Regulation

ABCD parameters can be used to describe

the variation of line voltage with line

loading.

Voltage regulation is the change in voltage

at the receiving end of the line when the

load varies from noload to a specified

fullload at a specified power factor, while

the sending end is held constant.

28

Voltage Regulation

% VR

VRNL

VRNL VRFL

VRFL

VS

A

Noload

receivingend voltage

100

VRFL VR

Fullload

receivingend voltage

29

VS AVRNL BI R

No Load Condition : I R 0

Thus;

Vs

VRNL

A

Short Line

Medium Line

VRNL VS

VRNL

Long Line

VS

ZY

1

??

30

Voltage Regulation

The effect of load power factor on voltage

regulation is illustrated in phasor diagram.

The phasor diagrams are graphical

representation of lagging, unity and

leading power factor.

31

Voltage Regulation

The higher (worse) voltage regulation

occurs for the lagging pf load where VRNL

exceeds VRFL by the larger amount.

A smaller or even negative voltage

regulation occurs in leading pf load.

32

Voltage Regulation

In practice, transmission line voltages

decrease when heavily loaded and

increase when lightly loaded.

EHV lines are maintained within 5% of

rated voltage, corresponding to about

10% voltage regulation.

10% voltage regulation for lower voltage

lines also considered good operating

practice.

33

Line Loadability

Another important issue that affect

transmission line performance.

3 major line loading limits are:

Thermal limit

Longer line length [ 80300 km length]

34

Example

is 40 km long. The resistance per phase

is 0.15 /km and the inductance per

phase is 1.5915 mH/km. The shunt

capacitance is negligible. Use the line

model to find the voltage and power at

the sending end and the voltage

regulation and efficiency when the line is

supplying a three-phase load of

a)

b)

381 MVA at 0.8 pf leading at 220 kV

35

Solution (a)

Given

R = 0.15 /km , L = 1.5915 mH/km

S =381 MVA with pf 0.8 lag

VR(line)=220 kV

36

Therefore, find VR , Z, and I R

VR phase

VR Line

3

2200 o kV

3

1270o kV

Z 40km

r j L l

0.15 j 2 50 1.5915m 40

6 j 20

37

Thus ,

S R 38136.87 o MVA 304.8MW j 228.6 M var

SR 3VR(Phase) I*R

SR

I

3VR(Phase)

*

R

IR

S*R

381 36.87 o MVA

*

3VR(Phase)

31270 o kV

1000 36.87 o A

38

Therefore,

VS(Phase) VR Phase ZI R

144.34.93o kV

VS Line 3 VS Phase

3 144.3

250V

39

I S I R 1000 36.87 o A

SS 3VR(Phase) I*R

3 144.334.93o V 100036.87 o A

322.8MW j 288.6 M var

43341.8o MVA

40

Voltage Regulation,

%VR

Effiency,

VRNL VRFL

VRFL

100

250 220

100

220

13.6%

PR

%

100

PS

304.8

100

322.8

94.4%

41

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