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# UNIT 3

MODELLING AND
PERFORMANCE OF
TRANSMISSION LINES

Introduction
Analyze the performance of single phase
and balanced three-phase transmission
conditions.
Expression of voltage and current at any
point along the line are developed, where
the nature of the series impedance and
shunt admittance is taken into account.
The performance of transmission line is
measured based on the voltage regulation

Transmission Line
Representation

## A line is treated as two-port network for

which the ABCD parameters and an
equivalent circuit are derived.

Transmission Line
Representation

## To facilitate the performance calculations

relating to a transmission line, the line is
approximated as a seriesparallel
interconnection of the relevant
parameters.
Consider a transmission line to have:

## A sending end and a receiving end;

A series resistance and inductance; and
A shunt capacitance and conductance
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Transmission Line
Representation

## The relation between sendingend and

receivingend quantities of the twoport
network can be written as:

VS AVR BI R
I S CVR DI R
VS A B
I C D

VR
I
R

Transmission Line
Representation

## Medium Line Model

< 80 km in length
Shunt effects are neglected.
Range from 80240 km in length
Shunt capacitances are lumped at a few
predetermined points along the line.

## Long Line Model

>240 km in length.
Uniformly distributed parameters.
Shunt branch consists of both capacitance and
conductance.
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## Short Line Model

Z z r j L
R jX L
where :
r per - phase resistance
L per - phase inductance
line length

## Thus, the ABCD parameters are easily

obtained from KVL and KCL equations as
below:

VS VR ZI R
IS IR
VS 1 Z VR
I 0 1 I
R
S
A D 1 pu ; B Z ; C 0 S

Circuit

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## Medium Line Model

Shunt capacitor is considered.
of shunt capacitor considered to be
lumped at each end of the line circuit

Y g jC
where :
C line to neutral capacitance per km
g line conductance per km
line length

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## Medium Line Model

Under

normal condition,

## shunt conductance per unit length (the

leakage current) over the insulators and
due to corona is negligible
Thus, g = 0

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## To obtain ABCD parameters, the current in

the series branch is denoted as IL.

voltage is:
VS VR ZI L
..1
Y
I L I R VR
2
From 1 and 2
Y

VS VR Z I R VR
2

ZY

1
VR ZI R
2

.. 2

.. 3
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14

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## Using KCL to obtain equation for sending

end current:
Y
I S I L VS
.. 4
2
Substitute 2 and 3 into 4
Y
VRY
YZ
IS IR
1
VR ZI R
2
2

2
YZ
YZ

Y 1
.. 5
VR 1
IR
4
2

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## Thus, the ABCD parameters can be

obtained from equation [3] and [5];

VS
I
S

ZY
1

ZY

Y 1

VR

ZY I R

1

2

ZY
ZY

A D 1
pu ; B Z ; C Y 1
S
2
4

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## Medium Line Model

ABCD constant are complex since model
is a symmetrical two-port network
A=D
The determinant of the transmission
matrix is unity(1)
AD BC = 1 (Prove this!)

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## The receiving and quantities can be

expressed in terms of the sending end
quantities

VR
D
I C

VS
I
S

## If, ignore the shunt capacitance of the TL,

the shunt admittance, Y=0, it become the
short transmission line constant.
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T Circuit

## Find the ABCD Parameters for

this circuit using KVL and KCL

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## Long Line Model

The shunt capacitance and series
impedance must be treated as distributed
quantities
The V and I on the line must be found
by solving the differential equation of the
transmission line.

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z R j L

zy

y g jC
Zc

z
y

sinh
Z' Z
Z c sinh

Y ' Y tanh 2 1

tanh
2 2 2
Zc
2
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The ABCD

parameters:

VS A B VR
I C D I
R
S
Z 'Y '
A
1
B Z'
2
Z 'Y '
Z 'Y '
C Y '
1
D
1
2
4

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ABCD Parameters
A

Parameters

Short
Line

ABCD

Medium

Medium
T
Long
Line

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Remember!

Complex Power

Vline 3 V phase

## S S 3 3VS phase I S* phase

or
S S 3 3VS line I S* line

## S R 3 3VR phase I R* phase

or
S R 3 3VR line I

*
R line

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Transmission Line
Efficiency

S L 3 S S 3 S R 3

PR 3
PS 3

PR 3
PS 3

100

## Note that only Real Power are taken into account!

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Voltage Regulation
ABCD parameters can be used to describe
the variation of line voltage with line
Voltage regulation is the change in voltage
at the receiving end of the line when the
fullload at a specified power factor, while
the sending end is held constant.

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Voltage Regulation
% VR

VRNL

VRNL VRFL
VRFL

VS
A

receivingend voltage

100

VRFL VR
receivingend voltage
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VS AVRNL BI R
No Load Condition : I R 0
Thus;
Vs
VRNL
A
Short Line
Medium Line

VRNL VS
VRNL

Long Line

VS
ZY
1

??
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Voltage Regulation
The effect of load power factor on voltage
regulation is illustrated in phasor diagram.
The phasor diagrams are graphical
representation of lagging, unity and

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Voltage Regulation
The higher (worse) voltage regulation
occurs for the lagging pf load where VRNL
exceeds VRFL by the larger amount.
A smaller or even negative voltage

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Voltage Regulation
In practice, transmission line voltages
EHV lines are maintained within 5% of
10% voltage regulation.
10% voltage regulation for lower voltage
lines also considered good operating
practice.

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Another important issue that affect
transmission line performance.

Thermal limit

## Short transmission lines [<80 km length]

Longer line length [ 80300 km length]

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Example

## A 220-kV, three-phase transmission line

is 40 km long. The resistance per phase
is 0.15 /km and the inductance per
phase is 1.5915 mH/km. The shunt
capacitance is negligible. Use the line
model to find the voltage and power at
the sending end and the voltage
regulation and efficiency when the line is
a)
b)

## 381 MVA at 0.8 pf lagging at 220 kV

381 MVA at 0.8 pf leading at 220 kV
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Solution (a)

Given
R = 0.15 /km , L = 1.5915 mH/km
S =381 MVA with pf 0.8 lag
VR(line)=220 kV

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## Find sending end voltage, VS VR ZI R

Therefore, find VR , Z, and I R

VR phase

VR Line

3
2200 o kV

3
1270o kV

Z 40km

## The series impedance per phase;

r j L l
0.15 j 2 50 1.5915m 40
6 j 20

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## S 381 MVA, cos -1 0.8 36.87 o

Thus ,
S R 38136.87 o MVA 304.8MW j 228.6 M var
SR 3VR(Phase) I*R
SR
I
3VR(Phase)
*
R

IR

S*R
381 36.87 o MVA

*
3VR(Phase)
31270 o kV
1000 36.87 o A

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Therefore,
VS(Phase) VR Phase ZI R

## 1270o kV 6 j 20 1000 36.87 o A

144.34.93o kV
VS Line 3 VS Phase
3 144.3
250V

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## Find Sending - end Power, SS 3VS Line I S

I S I R 1000 36.87 o A
SS 3VR(Phase) I*R

3 144.334.93o V 100036.87 o A
322.8MW j 288.6 M var

43341.8o MVA

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Voltage Regulation,
%VR

Effiency,

VRNL VRFL
VRFL

100

250 220

100
220
13.6%

PR
%
100
PS
304.8

100
322.8
94.4%

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