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Refrigeration & Air-conditioning

Refrigeration
Refrigeration
may
be
defined as the process of
achieving
and
maintaining
a
temperature below that
of the surroundings.
To cool some product or
space to the required
temperature.

Classification of Refrigeration
Natural Refrigeration
Artificial
Refrigeration

Natural Refrigeration
Use of ice or evaporative cooling. In
earlier times, ice was either:
Transported from colder regions.
Harvested in winter and stored in ice
houses for summer use.
Made during night by cooling of water
by radiation to stratosphere.

Natural Refrigeration
In olden days refrigeration was achieved by
natural means such as the use of ice or
evaporative cooling.
In earlier times, ice was either:
1. Transported from colder regions.
2. Harvested in winter and stored in ice houses for
summer use or.
3. Made during night by cooling of water by
radiation to stratosphere.

Some interesting facts about refrigeration


In India Tudors ice was cheaper than the
locally manufactured ice by nocturnal cooling.
North America transported to southern states
of America and other countries such as Great
Britain, Russia, Canada, Norway and France.

Ice was either transported from colder


regions or was harvested in winter and stored
in icehouses for use in summer.
The ice trade reached its peak in 1872 when
America alone exported 225000 tonnes of ice
to various countries as far as China and
Australia.

Some interesting facts about refrigeration


In Europe, America and Iran icehouses were
built to store ice.
Materials like cork, sawdust or wood shavings
as insulating materials in icehouses.
Ice only for rich people.
In India, the Mogul emperors were very fond
of ice during the harsh summer in Delhi and
Agra, ice used was made by nocturnal
cooling.
In 1806, Frederic Tudor (ice king) brought it
from
Hudson
River
and
ponds
of
Massachusetts - exported it to various
countries including India.

Art of Ice making by Nocturnal or


night sky Cooling
Ice was made by keeping a thin layer of
water in a shallow earthen tray and then
exposing the tray to the night sky.
Compacted hay of about 0.3 m thickness
was used as insulation.
The water looses heat by radiation to the
stratosphere, which is at around -55C to
-3 C and by early morning hours the
water in the trays freezes to ice.

Evaporative Cooling
Process of reducing the temperature of a system
by evaporation of water :
Used in India for centuries to obtain cold water
in summer by storing the water in earthen pots.
By placing wet straw mats on the windows is
also very common in India.
Straw mat khus adds its inherent perfume
also to the air.
Desert coolers are used in hot and dry areas to
provide cooling in summer.

Cooling by Salt Solutions


Common salt, when added to water dissolve in
water and absorb its heat of solution from water
(endothermic process).
Reduces the temperature of the solution
(water+salt).
NaCl can yield temperatures up to -20C and
Calcium Chloride (CaCl2) up to - 50C in properly
insulated containers.
Has limited application, as the dissolved salt has
to be recovered from its solution by heating.

Artificial Refrigeration
Refrigeration as it is known these days is
produced by artificial means.
When the Scottish professor William Cullen
made the first refrigerating machine in
1755, which could produce a small quantity
of ice in the laboratory.
Based
on
the
working
principle,
refrigeration systems can be classified as
vapour compression systems, vapour
absorption systems, gas cycle systems etc.

Green house effect & Ozone layer


and refrigerants
Hydrochlorofluorocarbons or HCFC-22 (R22).
Releases of R-22 is a greenhouse gas
contribute to ozone depletion.
Manufacture of R-22 results in a by-product
(HFC-23) that contributes significantly to
global warming.
Manufacturing of R-22 is phased out over
the coming years as part of the agreement
to end production of HCFCs.
Manufacturers of residential air conditioning
systems are offering equipment that uses

Refrigeration cycle on T-S and T-h


diagram

Heat

Sensible Heat

Latent
Heat

Sensible Heat

When an object is heated, its temperature


rises as heat is added. The increase in
heat is called sensible heat.
Similarly, when heat is removed from an
object and its temperature falls, the heat
removed is also called sensible heat.

Heat that causes a change in


temperature in an object is called
sensible heat.
Heating water from normal temperature
to boiling temp.

Latent Heat

All pure substances in nature are able to change their


state.
Solids can become liquids (ice to water) and liquids can
become gases (water to vapor) but changes such as
these require the addition or removal of heat.
The heat that causes these changes is called latent heat

Heat that causes a change of state with no change


in temperature is called latent heat. Ex water
remains at 100C while boiling.

Latent Heat of Evaporation


Latent heat of vaporization :
Amount of energy absorbed or released to change
liquid into vapour or vapour into liquid without
changing its temperature is known as Latent heat of
vaporization.

Latent heat of fusion :


Amount of energy absorbed or released to melt solid
into liquid or to freeze liquid into solid without
changing its temperature is known as Latent heat of
fusion.

Boiling Point & Pressure


The Boiling point of a substance
changes according to the pressure to
which the substance is subjected.
Boiling
point
increases
when
pressure increases and vice versa.

Unit of Refrigeration
It is defined as heat-extraction capacity
of
refrigerationandair
conditioningequipment.
Defined as theheat of fusionabsorbed
by melting 1tonof pure ice at 0C
(32F) in 24 hours.
A refrigeration ton is approximately
equivalent to 12,000 BTU/h or 3.517
kW

Latent Heat of Evaporation

Classification of Refrigeration systems

Based on the working principle,


refrigeration systems can be
classified as :
Vapour compression systems.
Vapour absorption systems.
Gas cycle systems etc.

Vapour Compression
Refrigeration Systems

Refrigerants
A special substance used in refrigeration system for
absorbing heat by changing its state is known as refrigerant.

Ammonia (R717)
Sulphur dioxide ( R764)
Methyl Cholride( R40)
Dichloro-difluro methane (Freon12)
Monochorodifluro methane ( Freon22)
Carbon dioxide ( R744)

Dry ice, sometimes referred to as "cardice" is the solid form of


carbon dioxide. It is used primarily as a cooling agent

Refrigerants

Properties of refrigerant
Low Boiling point.
Condensing pressure must be low.
Specific volume in the gaseous state should be
low ( it reduces the size of the compressor ,
evaporator).
Latent heat of vaporization should be high.
Critical temperature of the refrigerant should
be high. ( it is the temperature to which the
boiling of the liquid can be increased by
increasing pressure.
Non Corrosive and non solvent.
Stability- Should not break.

Parts in Vapor compression cycle

Evaporator
Compressor
Condenser
Expansion Valve

Evaporator
It is cooling unit of the cycle.
It is placed where heat is to be removed
from the product.
The refrigerant absorbs heat within the
evaporator.
Refrigerant is in a liquid state and it is
under reduced pressure.
As refrigerant absorbs heat it boils
changing to gas.

Compressor
It receives gaseous refrigerant from
the evaporator.
It compresses the gas which increases
the pressure.
It also adds small amount of heat to
the refrigerant gas which increases its
temperature.
Increase in pressure increases
refrigerants temp.

Condenser
Gas refrigerant is cooled and condensed
back to liquid.
Its place where the heat which was
absorbed at the evaporator is rejected.
It is maintained a temperature below the
condensing temperature of the high
pressure gas leaving the compressor.
Can be air cooled by natural or forced
convection.
Can b water cooled also.

Expansion valve
It reduces the pressure on the liquid
refrigerant before the refrigerant is
allowed to flow back to evaporator.
Reducing the pressure also reduces
the boiling point of the liquid
refrigerant.

Vapour Compression Refrigeration


Systems
3

Condenser

High Pressure
Side

4
Expansion
Device

Compressor

1
Evaporator

Low
Pressure
Side

Low pressure liquid


refrigerant in evaporator
absorbs heat and changes
to a gas

Condenser

High
Pressure
Side

4
Expansion
Device

Compressor

Low
Pressure
Side

Evaporator
35

The superheated vapour


enters the compressor
where its pressure is
raised
3

Condenser

High
Pressure
Side

4
Expansion
Device

Compressor

Low
Pressure
Side

Evaporator
36

The high pressure


superheated gas is cooled
in several stages in the
condenser

Condenser

High
Pressure
Side

4
Expansion
Device

Compressor

Low
Pressure
Side

Evaporator
37

Liquid passes through expansion


device, which reduces its
pressure and controls the flow
into the evaporator
3

Condenser

High
Pressure
Side

4
Expansion
Device

Compressor

1
Evaporator

Low
Pressure
Side

38

Refrigerator

Capacity of refrigerator?
The volume of the space
available for the things to
be
stored
in
the
refrigerator ( inside ) to
be cooled is know an
litres capacity.
It is the length, breadth
and height calculated in
cm and divided by 1000
gives the volume in litres.

Defrosting
Defrosting(or
thawing) is a
procedure,
performed
periodically on
refrigerators and
freezers to
maintain their
operating
efficiency.
Removal excess ice
!!!!

Applications of refrigeration
Preservation of perishable
food products by storing
them at low temperatures.
Providing thermal comfort
to human beings by means
of air conditioning.

Ice Cream
In thePersian people would
pour
grape-juice,
rose
water
,
Vermicelli
(sevanyia), saffron fruits,
concentrate oversnow, in
bowl, and eat this as a
treat.
Ancient civilizations have
served ice for cold foods for
thousands of years.
Frozen mixture of milk and

Ice Cream
TheRoman EmperorNero(3768
AD) had ice brought from the
mountains and combined it with
fruit toppings.
Arabsused milk as a major
ingredient in the production of
ice cream and sweetened it with
sugar rather thanfruit juices.
It was flavoured with
rosewater,dried fruitsandnuts.

A
Tushar Kulkarni
presentation

Thank You
Any Queries Please !