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Water Analysis
The following goals may be formulated for
the examination of water:
Determination of physical, chemical &
biological characteristics of water.
Determination of pollution sources.
Feasibility of water for different purposes
e.g, drinking, industrial, irrigation etc.
Type and size of treatment units required.
Determination of amount of chemicals
required for purification and conditioning of
water for industrial usage.
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General Water Analysis


Parameters

Color

Pure water is colorless. However color is

contributed to natural water by many


sources.
Sources:
End products of organic matter
degradation
Divalent ions of iron & manganese in both
ground & surface water.

Color
Color caused by suspended matter is called

apparent color.
Color caused by dissolved solids that remains
after removal of suspended solids is called true
color.
Color Removal:
Apparent color is removed by simple filtration or
ultra filtration.
True color causing organic compounds require
chlorine demand.
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pH
pH is the method of expressing the

concentration of ionized hydrogen.


It is the logarithms to base 10, of the
reciprocal of hydrogen ion conc. in g/L.
Pure water has equal conc. Of hydrogen &
hydroxyl ions and has pH of 7 (neutral).

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pH
pH of natural water lies in the range of 6.0

to 8.5.
Most of natural water is alkaline due to the
presence of carbonates.
pH of natural water changes due to
biological activity, photosynthesis, and
industrial disposal.
pH is one of the important parameter in
water treatment.

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Electrical Conductivity
It is the measure of the capacity of the

substance or solution to carry an electric


current.
It is a parameter for dissolved solids.
Its value depend on conc. Of ions,
temperature and the migration velocity of the
ions.

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Electrical Conductivity
It helps in estimating the total dissolved solids

by following empirical relation:

TDS(mg/L) = C * Electrical
Conductivity
Where C is empirical factor may vary from

0.55 to 0.9 depending on the soluble solids


present in water.

Turbidity
The suspended solids interfering with the

passage of light is called turbidity.


Sources:
Clay
Residues
Organic matter & metals
Microscopic organisms

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Turbidity
Turbidity is measured by determining %age of

light of a given intensity absorbed or scattered.


Units are:

NTU (Nephlometric Turbidity Unit) based on light

scattering
FNU (Formazin Nephelometric Unit) based on light
scattering
FTU (Formazin Turbidity Unit) based on light
absorption
JTU (Jackson Turbidity Unit) based on light
absorption
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Solids
Organic Solids

Solids are about 50 percent organic. This


fraction is generally of animal or
vegetable life and synthetic organic
compounds.
Inorganic Solids

Inorganic solids are substances that are


inert and not subject to decay. Inorganic
solids include sand, gravel as well as
the mineral salts etc.
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Solids
Solids can also be grouped depending on their
physical state as suspended solids, colloidal
solids and dissolved solids, each of which can
include both organic and inorganic solids.
Suspended Solids
Suspended solids are those which are visible
and in suspension in the water. They are the
solids which can be removed from the
wastewater by physical or mechanical means,
such as sedimentation or filtration e.g. sand,
clay, paper, pieces of wood, particles of food
and garbage, and similar materials.

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Solids
Settleable Solids

Settleable solids are that portion of the suspended


solids which are of sufficient size and weight to
settle in a given period of time, usually one hour.
Colloidal Solids
Colloidal suspended solids are solids that are not
truly dissolved and yet do not settle readily.
These are somewhat loosely defined as the
differences between the suspended solids and
the settleable solids

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Solids

Dissolved solids
Dissolved solids are invisible and smaller in
size than suspended and colloidal solids. As
used, the term means all of the solids which
pass through the filter paper.
Total Solids
Total solids, as the term implies, includes all of
the solid constituents of a wastewater. Total
solids are the total of the organic and inorganic
solids or the total of the suspended and
dissolved solids.

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