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WATER RESOURCES

IN INDIA
-

An Overview
By
Praveen P

Resources Overview
General Stats
1. Surface water
a) Rivers
b) Lakes and ponds
2. Ground water
a) Aquifers
b) Wells
3. Rainfall

Surface Water

Surface water is available on the


surface of the earth in the form of
rivers, lakes, ponds, canals, etc.
However, rivers comprise the most
important source of surface water.
India is blessed with a large
number of major, medium and
small size rivers.
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Rivers

As many as 13 of them are


classified as major rivers whose
total catchment area is 252.8
million hectares (m. ha).
This is about 83 per cent of the
total area of all drainage basins.

Major rivers
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Ganga
Indus
Brahmaputra
Narmada
Tapi
Godavari
Krishna
Mahanadi
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Ganga

River Ganga is the longest river in


India. The Ganges lies at a height
of 13,800 feet in the mountain
range of the Himalayas in the Tehri
Garhwal near Gangotri.
The river Ganges is considered as
the holiest of all rivers in the
Bhagawad Gita. No other river has
been more mentioned in the
Puranas as the Ganga.

Indus

TheIndus Riverflows fromTibet,


intoJammu and Kashmirand the
rest ofPakistan.
The total length of the river is
3,180 km (1,980 mi). It is
Pakistan's longest river.
It was the birthplace of the
earlyIndus Valley civilization.
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Brahmaputra

TheBrahmaputra, also called


Tsangpo in Tibet, is one of the
mainriversinAsia.
It has its origin in
theHimalayasofTibet. It flows
throughTibet,IndiaandBangladesh
. It is 2,900km (1,800mi) long.
The Brahmaputras source is
theChemayungdung Glacier, which
covers the slopes of the Himalayas.

Lakes

Lakes of India are not only


significant geographically but also
are major tourist attractions.
As far as the lakes of India are
concerned there are both natural
and man made lakes to be found
across the subcontinent.
The location of the various lakes in
India is an added attraction for the
travellers.

Lakes(cont.)

It is difficult to trace the history of the


natural lakes of India.
But the manmade ones have a
historical background since most of
these were built by kings and
emperors as reservoirs. The lakes of
India are generally categorised as
fresh water and brackish lakes.
Amazingly enough these water bodies
differ form one region to another.
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Ground Water

The water that lies beneath the ground


surface, filling the pore space between
grains in bodies of sediment and
classic sedimentary rock, and filling
cracks and crevices in all types of rock
Source of ground water is rain that falls
to the ground a portion of which
percolates down into the ground to
become ground water.
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Aquifers

An aquifers is a body of saturated


rock or sediment through which
water can move easily.
Increased urbanisation across India
has led to a severe depletion of
aquifers near large cities.
Currently groundwater supports
about 60% of irrigated agriculture
and more than 80% of rural and
urban water supplies.
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Aquifers(cont.)

Certainly the development of cities


and paved areas means that there is
more run off during the monsoon
season and as such less water soaks
into the ground to recharge aquifers.
Using satellite data the National
Geophysical Research Institute in
Hyderabad has calculated that
northern India is taking 54 trillion litres
of water out of the ground every year.
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Wells

Awater wellis an excavation or


structure created in the ground by
digging, driving, boring, or drilling to
accessgroundwaterin
undergroundaquifers.
Wells can vary greatly in depth, water
volume, and water quality. Well water
typically contains more minerals in
solution than surface water and may
require treatment tosoften the water.
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Rainfall
Average Annual Rainfall

- 1170 mm

Maximum Average Annual Rainfall - 11000


mm
(Cherrapunji)
Minimum Average Annual Rainfall -100
mm
(Western Rajasthan)

Spatial Variation of Rainfall

Temporal Variation
All India

Water Availability
(In Billion cubic meter)
Total Precipitation

: 4000

Total Water Availability : 1869


Total Utilizable Water

: 1122

Surface Water - 690


Ground Water
- 432

CONSERVATION OF WATER

Efficiency of
diverse uses
optimized and
as a scarce
fostered.

utilization in all the


of water should be
an awareness of water
resource should be

Conservation consciousness should


be promoted through education,
regulation,
incentives
and
disincentives.

Conservation(cont.)

The resources should be conserved


and the availability augmented by
maximizing retention, eliminating
pollution and minimizing losses.
For this, measures like lining in the
conveyance system, modernization
and rehabilitation of existing
systems , recycling and re-use of
treated effluents and techniques like
drip and sprinkler may be promoted.
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Thank You