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integral multiples of f. For example a set of sine waves whose

frequencies are 50, 150, 250, 450 Hz is said to possess the

following components:

Third harmonic: 150 Hz (3 x 50 Hz)

Fifth harmonic: 250 Hz (5 x 50 Hz)

Ninth harmonic: 450 Hz (9 x 50 Hz)

harmonics it contains. This distortion can be produced by

magnetic saturation in the core of transformers or by the

switching of thyristors or IGBTs in electronics drive.

1

All periodic signals of frequency “f" can be represented in the

form of a composite sum:

1. of a sinusoidal term at frequency “f": the FUNDAMENTAL

(H1).

2. of sinusoidal terms of which frequencies are integer multiples

of fundamental H1: the HARMONICS (Hn).

3. of a possible continuous component (DC component)

2

Harmonics :Order and Spectrum

Order:

The order of the harmonic is the

value of the integer which

determines its frequency.

Example: harmonic of order 5,

frequency = 250 Hz

(when fundamental f is 50 Hz)

Spectrum:

The spectrum of a signal is the

graph representing amplitudes

of the harmonics as a function

of their frequency.

3

To summarize: the harmonics are nothing less than the

components of a distorted waveform and their use allows us

to analyse any periodic non-sinusoidal waveform through

different sinusoidal waveform components.

Figure below shows a graphical representation of this

concept.

4

First harmonic (fundamental) Fifth harmonic

Two sinusoidal sources connected in series

U1max = 60 V @ 50 Hz U1 U2

U2max = 20 V @ 150 Hz

U3

80

60

40

20 fundamental

0 third harmonic

-20 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 total

-40

-60

-80

5

EXAMPLE OF THE HARMONICS

harmonics analyzis

25

20

15

10 Basic harmonic

5 3th harmonic

Ampers

5th harmonic

0 7th harmonic

9th harmonic

-5 11th harmonic

total curent

-10

-15

-20

-25

6

fundamental + harmonics

25

20

15

10

5

0

-5 1 22 43 64 85 106 127 148 169 190 211 232 253 274 295 316 337 358

-10

-15

-20

-25

7

How harmonics are generated?

a sinusoidal voltage to a load of this type, we shall obtain a

current with non-sinusoidal waveform.

i i

t u t u

t t

Linear load Nonlinear load 8

Linear and non-linear loads

A load is said to be linear when there

is a linear relationship between

current and voltage. In simpler terms,

a linear load absorbs a sinusoidal

current when it is supplied by a

sinusoidal voltage: this current may

be displaced by an angle ϕ

compared with voltage.

verified, the load is termed non-

linear. It absorbs a nonsinusoidal

current and thus harmonic

currents, even when it is supplied

by a purely sinusoidal voltage current absorbed by

a non-linear load. 9

GENERATING HARMONICS IN TRANSFORMER

MAGNETIZING CURRENT

magnetizing current I µ and IFe , proportional to the core power

losses. These currents are displaced from each other by an

angle Π /2. This displacement can be explained by means of

excitation current waveform. If the coil is supplied with

sinusoidal voltage the flux Φ must be sinusoidal too. Since

the magnetizing characteristic B-H is nonlinear, and has a

hysteresis loop, the current waveform obtained from

magnetizing curve is far from sinusoidal.

10

11

Definition and characteristic quantities related to harmonics

functions can be represented by a sum of sinusoidal terms, the

first one of which, at the recurrence frequency of the function,

is said to be fundamental, and the others, at multiple

frequencies of the fundamental, are said to be harmonic. A DC

component may complete these purely sinusoidal terms.

n=

Fourier's formula: y (t) = Yo + Σ Yn √2 sin (nω t –

n=1

ϕ n)

where:

- Yo: DC component value, generally nil and would not be

considered

- Yn: rms value of the nth harmonic component,

- ω : angular frequency of the fundamental, 12

th

Harmonics: Effective (RMS - Root Mean Square) Value

T n=

1

Yrms =

T

2

y (t)dt = Σn=1 Y2n

0

Effective value = 2 2 2 2 2

Y1 + Y2 + Y3 + Y4 +…..+Y n

I fund. = 56.2A ; Ih3 = 27.2A ; Ih5 = 2.7A ; Ih7 = 9.2A ; Ih9 = 7.8A

2 2 2 2 2

Irms = 56.2 + 27.2 + 2.7 + 9.2 + 7.8 = 63.6 A 13

Total harmonic distortion

distortion of the alternating quantity.

This is the ratio of the RMS

value of the harmonics over

the RMS value of the

fundamental:

2 2 2 2 2

Y 2 + Y3 + Y4 + Y5 +…..+Y n

THD = 100

Y1

Y1 with the total rms value Yrms .

This definition is used by some measuring instruments. 14

Distortion factor vs. THD

1

(distortion factor) =

2

1 + (THD)

15

Individual harmonic ratio

over the value of the fundamental (Y1), according to the

standard definition or over the value of the alternating quantity

(Yrms ).

(Frequency) spectrum

order: harmonics value is normally expressed as a

percentage of the fundamental.

16

Power factor (PF) and Displacement Power Factor (DPF)

are present, as they are equivalent only when currents and

voltages are completely sinusoidal.

ratio between active power P factor (cos ϕ 1) relates to

and apparent power S: fundamental quantities, thus:

λ =P/ cos ϕ 1 = P1 / S1

S

In pure sinusoidal waveform: cos ϕ 1 = cos ϕ = λ

Distortion factor

The IEC 146-1-1 defines this factor as the ratio between the

power factor and the displacement power factor cos ϕ 1 :

17

ν = λ / cos ϕ 1

Peak factor

Fc = Ypeak / Yrms

• Linear load Fc = 1.41

• IT load Fc = 2 to 2.5

• Micro computing load Fc = 2.2 to 3

18

The current drawn by non-linear loads passes through all of the

impedance between the system source and load. This current

produces harmonic voltages for each harmonic as it flows

through the system impedance. These harmonic voltages sum

and produce a distorted voltage when combined with the

fundamental. The voltage distortion magnitude is dependent on

the source impedance and the harmonic voltages produced.

19

A non linear load is effectively drawing current from the power

source at the fundamental frequency, and generating current

back at higher frequencies. This results in a distorted current

waveform as shown previous. Current harmonics disturb the

supply voltage and this also results in a distorted voltage at

the point of common coupling. Example: Consumer A and B

are fed from the same line. The non linear loads of consumer

A will distort the voltage of consumer B even if the latter has

only linear loads.

Point of common coupling

A B

system

impedance

20

Voltage and current total harmonic distortion

circuits supplying it. In actual fact all upstream impedances

need to be taken into consideration right through to the

sinusoidal voltage source.

Consequently a load absorbing harmonic currents always has

a non-sinusoidal voltage at its terminals. This is characterized

by the voltage total harmonic distortion:

harmonic n, and In the rms value of harmonic n.

21

Output impedance of the various sources as a function of

frequency.

22

Sources of Harmonics

There are many sources of power system harmonics. Some

examples of harmonic producing devices are:

Transformers: Third harmonic currents are present in the

magnetizing current (a small portion of the transformer full load

current). If the transformer saturates (due to over-voltage), the

harmonic distortion level of the current increases substantially.

Fluorescent Lamps: These devices produce a predominantly

third order harmonic current

on the order of 20% to 30% of the fundamental current.

Electronic ballasts have slightly

different characteristics but exhibit similar levels of harmonics.

Pulse-Width Modulated Converters: These devices use an

external controller for switching the input transistors allowing

the current waveform to be shaped more desirably. However,

these converters are limited in power and typically used in

23

applications less than a few hundred kilowatts.

Switched Mode Power Supplies: Typically found in single-

phase electronic devices such as computers and other

business and consumer electronics, these devices use a

switching regulator to precisely control the DC voltage. The

input of these power supplies normally consists of a full-wave

bridge rectifier and a DC filter capacitor which produces

an alternating pulse current waveform rich in third harmonic.

Though they are not used in large power applications, the

cumulative effects of many devices may create concerns,

particularly for 400/230 Volt Y systems.

24

Wave shape of current absorbed by some non-linear loads.

H3 H5 H7 H9 H11 H13 H15 H17 H19

54 18 18 11 11 8 8 6 6

H3 H5 H7 H9 H11 H13 H15 H17 H19

75 45 15 7 6 3 3 3 2

25

Three-phase rectifier with front end capacitor

0 80 75 0 40 35 0 10 5

H3 H5 H7 H9 H11 H13 H15 H17 H19

0 25 7 0 9 4 0 5 3

26

Harmonic currents in three phase systems

Neutral conductor

Here not only do we have to deal with phase conductors, but

also the neutral conductor, triplen (odd multiples of 3 i.e. 3rd ,

9th , 15th etc,) harmonics, and sequence harmonics. The

triplen harmonics are the major cause of heat because they

add together in the neutral conductor. The magnitude of the

harmonic current produced by the triplens can approach twice

the phase current. This causes the neutral conductor to

overheat because neutral conductors were historically

designed with the same ampacity as the phase conductors.

27

With, for example, an harmonic 3 of 75%, the current flowing

in the neutral is 2.25 times the fundamental. The current in

each phase is only SQR (1+ 0.752 ) = 1.25 times the

fundamental.

neutral current

150

100

50

0

1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37

-50

-100

-150

28

Induction motor

motors is the combination of positive and negative

sequenced harmonics. The positive sequenced harmonics

are the fundamental, 7th , 13th , 19th , etc. They tend to apply

an additional forward force in the direction of the motor

rotation. The negative sequenced harmonics are the 5th ,

11th , 17th , etc. They present a force that opposes the motor

rotation and tries to make the motor rotate in the opposite

direction. The force of these harmonics acting upon each

other creates heat which leads to premature failure.

Harmonic voltage distortion causes increased eddy current

losses in the motors, in the same way as seen for

transformers. 29

Transformers

mainly three aspects:

• b) increase of copper losses

• c) presence of harmonics circulating in the windings

to the losses caused by eddy currents; the losses due to

hysteresis are proportional to the frequency, whereas the

losses due to eddy currents depend on the square

of the frequency.

30

b) The copper losses correspond to the power dissipated

by Joule effect in the transformer windings. As the

frequency rises (starting from 350 Hz) the current tends to

thicken on the surface of the conductors (skin effect); under

these

circumstances, the conductors offer a smaller cross section

to the current flow, since the losses by Joule effect

increase.

sometimes causes a de-rating of the transformer

31

c) The third aspect is relevant to the effects of the triple-N

harmonics (homopolar harmonics) on the transformer

windings. In case of delta windings, the harmonics flow

through the windings and do not propagate upstream

towards the network since they are all in phase; the delta

windings therefore represent a barrier for triple-N harmonics,

but it is necessary to pay particular attention to this type of

harmonic components for a correct dimensioning of the

transformer. The triplen harmonics are trapped and circulate

in the delta primary of the transformer. Since most loads

produce high levels of the 3rd harmonic (one of the triplens),

the harmonic content reflected back to the source is reduced.

The circulating harmonics in the primary of the transformer

creates heat because of their higher frequencies. For this

reason, a transformer that can handle the excess heat is

needed. This transformer is called a K-rated transformer

32

Induction motor

motors is the combination of positive and negative

sequenced harmonics. The positive sequenced harmonics

are the fundamental, 7th , 13th , 19th , etc. They tend to apply

an additional forward force in the direction of the motor

rotation. The negative sequenced harmonics are the 5th ,

11th , 17th , etc. They present a force that opposes the motor

rotation and tries to make the motor rotate in the opposite

direction. The force of these harmonics acting upon each

other creates heat which leads to premature failure.

Harmonic voltage distortion causes increased eddy current

losses in the motors, in the same way as seen for

transformers. 33

Skin effect losses

fundamental 50 Hertz frequency. A problem exists with higher

frequencies (harmonics), that is, they do not fully penetrate the

conductor. They travel on the outer edge of the conductor. This

is called skin effect. When skin effect occurs, the effective

cross sectional area of the conductor decreases; increasing the

resistance and the I2R losses, which in turn heats up the

conductors and anything connected to them. This heating effect

can cause circuit breakers to trip, neutral and phase conductors

to heat up to critical flash over temperatures, and premature

failure of motors and transformers.

This is costly in terms of downtime, loss of production, repair,

and possible reconstruction.

34

In the presence of high-order harmonics, it is necessary to take

skin effect into account, because it affects the life of cables. In

order to overcome this problem, it is possible to use multiple

conductor cables or busbar systems formed by more

elementary isolated conductors.

35

Harmonic currents in three-phase four-wire networks

n=

uan (t) = Um cos ω t ia(t) = Σ Ian cos (nω t – ϕ an )

n=1

n=

ubn (t) = Um cos (ω t-120) ib(t) = Σ Ibn cos [n(ω t – 120) - ϕ bn ]

n=1

n=

ucn (t) = Um cos (ω t-120) ic(t) = Σ Icn cos [n(ω t + 120) - ϕ36 cn ]

n=1

Neutral current

contain currents having spectrum similar to the line currents.

n=

iN(t) = Σ { Ian cos (nω t – ϕ an ) + Ibn cos [n(ω t – 120) – ϕ bn ]

n=1

+ Icn cos [n(ω t + 120) – ϕ cn ] }

= ϕ n , for all n; i.e., the harmonics of the three phases all

have equal amplitudes and phase shifts. The neutral current

is then n=

iN(t) = Σ 3 In cos (nω t –

n=3.6.9..

ϕ n) 37

n=

iN(t) = Σ 3 In cos (nω t –

n=3.6.9..

ϕ n)

Fundamental and most harmonics cancel out

Triplen (triple-n, or 3, 6, 9, ...) harmonics do not cancel out,

but add.

n=

I2 n

rms neutral current is INrms = 3 Σ

n=3,6,9.. 2

38

39

Example

fundamental and 20% third harmonic: ian (t) = I1 cos(ω t – ϕ 1)

+ 0.2 I1 cos(3ω t – ϕ 3). Find the rms neutral current, and

compare its amplitude to the rms line current amplitude.

n=

I 2n ( 0.2 I1 )2 I1

INrms = 3 Σ =3

2

= 0.6

n=3,6,9.. 2 2

INrms = 60% of I1rms

The triplen harmonics in the three phases add, such that 20%

third harmonic leads to 60% third harmonic neutral current.

Significant unexpected neutral current flows.

40

n=

I2 n

Generally the rms current = Σ

n=1 2

n=

I2 n ( I 1 )2 ( I 3 )2

I1rms = Σ =

2

+

2

n=1 2

( I1 )2 (0.2 I1 )2 I1 I1

I1rms = + = 1 + 0.04

2 2 2 2

Yet the presence of the third harmonic has very little effect

on the rms value of the line current.

41

Y-connected nonlinear load, no neutral connection:

n=

iN(t) = Σ 3 In cos (nω t –

n=3.6.9..

ϕ n) 42

But iN (t) = 0, since there is no neutral connection and the ac

line currents cannot contain triplen harmonics.

What happens?

line current triplen harmonics to become zero.

The load neutral point voltage contains triplen harmonics.

triplen harmonics

43

Delta-connected load

contain no triplen harmonics.

The load (phase) currents may contain triplen harmonics: with

a balanced nonlinear load, these circulate around the delta.

44

Harmonic currents in power factor correction capacitors

harmonic currents.

Heating in capacitors is a function of capacitor equivalent

series resistance (esr) and rms current. The maximum

allowable rms current then leads to the capacitor rating:

Irms

rated rms voltage Urms =

2π fC

I2rms

rated reactive power QC =

2π fC

45

46

Average power

Fourier series:

T

n=1

0

n=1 This is related to average

power as follows:

influence of harmonics on

T

average power: Pcycle 1

Pav = = v(t) i(t) dt

T T

0

T

1

Pav = [Σ Un cos (nω t – ϕ n)]Σ[ In cos (nω t – θ n)] dt

T n=1 n=1

47

0

Integrals of cross-product terms are zero

T

[Un cos (nω t – ϕ n)] [In cos (mω t – θ m)] dt

0

0 if n = m So net energy is

{

= Un In

2

cos (ϕ n –θ m) if n = m

transmitted to the load

only when the Fourier

series of u(t) and i(t)

contain terms at the

Expression for average power same frequency. For

becomes example, if the voltage

Un In and current both

Pav = Σ cos (ϕ n – θ n) contain third harmonic,

n=1 2 then they lead to the

average power:

U3 I3

cos (ϕ 3 – θ 3)48

2

Example 1

u (t) i (t)

Current: third harmonic only

49

Example 2

u (t), i (t)

Voltage: third harmonic only

Current: third harmonic only,

in phase with voltage

50

Example 3

Fourier series:

u(t) = 1.2 cos (ω t) + 0.33 cos (3ω t) + 0.2 cos (5ω t)

i(t) = 0.6 cos (ω t + 30°) + 0.1 cos (5ω t + 45°) + 0.1 cos (7ω t + 60°)

(1.2)(0.6) (0.2)(0.1)

Pav = cos (30°) + cos (45°) = 0.32 W

2 2

51

Voltage: 1st, 3rd, 5th

Current: 1st, 5th, 7th

transmitted at

fundamental and fifth

harmonic frequencies

52

In AC circuits the fundamental current and fundamental voltage

together produce fundamental power. This fundamental power

is the useful power that cause motor to rotate and deliver work

on the rotor’s shaft or to make electrical heater to deliver heat.

The product of a harmonic voltage times the corresponding

harmonic current also produces a harmonic power. That one is

usually dissipated as a heat and does not do useful work.

Harmonic currents and voltages should be kept as small as

possible.

yields zero net power.

53

GENERATING HARMONICS WITH SWITCH

Irms = 70.7 A

Closed switch

Synchronous I = 1000/10 = 100 A

1000 V switch R

60 Hz 10 P = I2R = 1002x10

Ω = 100 kW

Operational switch

(half time opened)

1410 V

Dissipated power = 50 kW

141 A

I2 = P/R = 50000/10 = 5000

I = 70.7 A

2

P = I2 x R = 70.7 x 10

54

P = 50 kW

Chopped current

The chopped current can be

1410 V Fundamental decomposed to fundamental

component and harmonics component.

141 A

84 A

The 10Ω resistor absorbs a

fundamental active power

32.50

P = I2 x R = 59.32 x 10 = 35.2 kW

Apparent fundamental power supplied

by source The difference of 50 – 35.2 = 14.8 kW

S = U x I = 1000 x 84/1.414 = 59.3 kVA goes to the harmonic power absorbed

by resistor

Active fundamental power supplied by

source 14.8kW

P = S x cosϕ = 59.3 x cos 32.5 = 50 IF = 59.3 ∠-32.5 A

kW

31.9kVAr

Reactive fundamental power supplied

14.8kW

by source 1 kV

kVAr 10

The switch carries a fundamental current of 59.3 A and it

absorbs 14.8 kW and 31.9 kVAr, it can be represented by

resistance and inductive reactance connected in series.

4.21Ω j9.07Ω

R = P / I2 = 14800 / 59.32 = 4.21 Ω

X = Q / I2 = 31900 / 59.32 = 9.07 Ω

1kV 10Ω

Effective value of the IF = 59.3A

harmonic current is

Equivalent circuit for the

IH = V I2 - IF2 = V 70.72 – 59.32 fundamental component

= 38.5 A

10Ω

across the 10Ω resistor IH = 38.5A

is U = I x R = 38.5 x 10 =

385 V. Equivalent circuit for all

harmonic components 56

57

Low-power harmonic limits

of the total power system load can be nonlinear

• Example: a major portion of the electrical load in a building

is comprised of fluorescent lights, which present a very

nonlinear characteristic to the utility system.

• A modern office may also contain a large number of

personal computers, printers, copiers, etc., each of which

may employ peak detection rectifiers.

• Although each individual load is a negligible fraction of the

total local load, these loads can collectively become

significant.

58

Short Term Effects

Unwanted tripping of protections

Malfunction of sensitive applications

Interference of remote control and telecommunication systems

Abnormal vibration and noise (LV panels, motors, transformers)

Overheating of transformers, alternators

Overheating of phases, particularly neutral

59

Harmful Effects on Receivers

Cables:

Overheating of cables

Additional losses due to skin effect

Increase in dielectric losses of insulation

Induction motors:

Increase in core (stator) and Joule losses

Pulsating torques causing efficiency reduction,

abnormal vibration, rotor overheating

60

General Solutions

Install limitation induction coils for speed drives

Install specific rectifiers called active front end

Passive filters

Active filters

Hybrid filters

Oversize equipment

61

Harmonic Currents add in the Neutral

The 120°

phase shift

between linear

load currents

will result in

their balanced

portions

instantaneously

canceling in the

neutral.

With linear loads, the neutral can be the same size as the

phase conductors because the neutral current cannot be

larger than the largest phase current, even when the load

is completely unbalanced. 62

When the load is non-

linear however, the

current pulse on one

phase will not have a

pulse on either of the

other phases for

which to cancel. The

pulses are additive

which often leads to

heavier current on the

neutral conductor than

on any phase

conductor. The

frequency of this With non-linear loads, the neutral

neutral current is current generally exceeds the largest

primarily 150 Hz (3rd phase current, even when the loads

harmonic). are in perfect RMS current balance.63

The presence of harmonic currents can also lead to some

special problems in three-phase systems:

• In a four-wire three-phase system, harmonic currents can

lead to large currents in the neutral conductors, which may

easily exceed the conductor rms current rating

• Power factor correction capacitors may experience

significantly increased rms currents, causing them to fail

64

K factor

is connected to the mains supply. The problems caused by

harmonic currents include overheating of cables, especially

the neutral conductor, overheating and vibration in induction

motors and increased losses in transformers.

Where power factor capacitors are fitted, harmonic currents

can damage them and care must be taken to avoid

resonance with the supply inductance.

Losses in transformers are due to stray magnetic losses in

the core, and eddy current and resistive losses in the

windings. Of these, eddy current losses are of most concern

when harmonics are present, because they increase

approximately with the square of the frequency. Before the

excess losses can be determined, the harmonic spectrum of

the load current must be known. 65

The eddy current loss at a particular harmonic is given by:

Pn = Pf In2 n2

where

Pn is the eddy current loss at harmonic number n

Pf is the eddy current loss at the fundamental frequency f

In is the fraction of total rms load current at harmonic number n

The total eddy current loss is given by summing the losses for

the individual harmonics and the fundamental:

n = max

Pt = Pf Σn=1

In2 n2

There are two distinct approaches to accounting for this

increased eddy current loss in selecting a transformer. The

first, devised by transformer manufacturers in conjunction with

Underwriters Laboratories in the United States, is to calculate

the factor increase in eddy current loss and specify

a transformer designed to cope; this is known as ‘K-Factor’.

much a standard transformer should be de-rated so that the

total loss on harmonic load does not exceed the fundamental

design loss; this is known as ‘factor K’. The figures produced

by each method are numerically different; ‘factor K’ is a total

rating factor while ‘K-factor’ is a multiplier (although a de-rating

factor can be derived from it). The fact that both methods use

K as a designation can lead to confusion when talking to

67

suppliers.

K-Factor

the K-factor is the ratio of eddy current losses when driving

non-linear and linear loads:

Pt n = max

K= = Σ In2 n2

Pf n=1

Fluke 41 & 43). Once the K-Factor of the load has been

determined, it is a simple matter to specify a transformer

with a higher K-rating from the standard range of 4, 9, 13,

20, 30, 40, 50.

68

Factor K

according to the formulae in BS 7821 Part 4. The factor K is

given by:

n=N

e I1 2 In 2 0.5

K = { 1+ [ ] Σ [ n (

q

) ]}

1+e I n=2 I1

where

by the loss due to a dc current equal to the RMS value of the

sinusoidal current, both at reference temperature.

n is the harmonic order

I is the rms value of the sinusoidal current including all

harmonics given by:

69

n=N n=N In

0.5

I= [ Σ ( In) ]

2

= I1[ Σ (

2 0.5

)]

n=1 n=1 I1

I1 is the magnitude of the fundamental current

q is an exponential constant that is dependent on the type

of winding and frequency. Typical values are 1.7 for

transformers with round or rectangular cross section

conductors in both windings and 1.5 for those with foil low

voltage windings.

70

A standardized empirical formula (NFC 52-114) is used to

calculate the de-rating factor k to be applied to a transformer.

H5 = 25% ; H7 = 14% ; H11 = 9% ; H13 = 8%,

the factor k is 0.91.

71

K-Rated or De-Rated?

have been designed with harmonic loads in mind and care

will have been taken to keep losses low. For example, eddy

current losses will have been reduced by the use of stranded

conductors and magnetic losses will have been reduced by

the use of low loss steels. The neutral point connections are

usually brought out individually, so that the star point has a

300% current rating.

72

On the other hand, de-rating a standard transformer has a

number of disadvantages. Because the transformer is

oversized, the primary over-current protection level may be too

high to protect the secondary, but if the protection level is

reduced, the inrush current may cause tripping. A de-rated

transformer is less efficient; the excess losses are still being

generated and dissipated within the transformer, rather than

being designed out, and a larger core than necessary, with

larger losses, is being magnetized.

installation, changes in the needs of the facility may result in

additional load being added without reference back to the initial

de-rating. This may lead to overloading and consequent

failure.

73

Typical calculation according to BS 7821 Part 4

(taking q as 1.7 and assuming that eddy current loss at

fundamental is 10% of resistive loss i.e. e = 0.1).

Harmonic RMS In/I1 (In/I1)

2

nq nq (In/I1)

2

1 1 1 1

3 0.82 0.82 0.6724 6.473 4.3525

5 0.58 0.58 0.3364 15.426 5.1893

7 0.38 0.38 0.1444 27.332 3.9467

9 0.18 0.18 0.0324 41.900 1.3576

11 0.045 0.045 0.0020 58.934 0.1193

Σ =2.1876 Σ =14.9653

Typical calculation according to Underwriters’ Laboratories

method:

2

In/I (In/I)2 (In/I)2 x n2

No. current (In)

3 0.82 0.82 0.6724 0.5544 0.3073 2.7663

5 0.58 0.58 0.3364 0.3921 0.1538 3.8444

7 0.38 0.38 0.1444 0.2569 0.0660 3.2344

9 0.18 0.18 0.0324 0.1217 0.0148 1.2000

11 0.045 0.045 0.0020 0.0304 0.0009 0.1120

Σ =2.1876 11.6138

75

1.479

Failure of power factor capacitors

circuit.

As the supply impedance is generally considered to be

inductive, the network impedance increases with frequency

while the impedance of a capacitor decreases.

XL = 2 π f L (Ω )

XL = XC

f (hz)

Capacitive reactance

1 resonant

XC = (Ω ) frequency

2π fC XC

76

1 1

XL = XC = X = 2 π f L = fr =

2π fC 2π LC

generated by non linear load, then large harmonic currents

can circulate between the supply network and the capacitor

equipment. These currents are limited only by the damping

resistance in the circuit. Such currents will add to the harmonic

voltage disturbance in the network causing an increased

voltage distortion. This results in a higher voltage across the

capacitor and excessive current through all capacitor

components. Resonance can occur on any frequency, but in

general, the resonance we are concerned with is on, or close

to, the 5th, 7th, 11th and 13th harmonics for 6 pulse systems.

77

Example of the resonant frequency calculation

(uk) 5.82 % impedance, would have a short circuit current at

main panel of

S 1600

ISC = = = 39681 A

3 U2 uk 1.732 x 0.4 x 0.0582

SSC 27491

System harmonic calculation: n = = = 10.9

QC 230 78

This calculation indicates that the resonant frequency can

develop if the distribution system contains the 11th harmonic

in any significant amount, causing the capacitor to overheat

and possibly, explode.

Using detuning reactors

This solution consists of protecting the capacitors, designed

to improve the displacement power factor by installing a

series reactor. This reactor is calculated so that resonance

frequency matches none of the harmonics present.

Typical tuning frequencies are for a 50 Hz fundamental: 135

Hz (order 2.7), 190 Hz (order 3.8) and 255 Hz (order 4.5).

Thus for the fundamental, the battery can perform its

displacement power factor improvement function, while the

high impedance of the reactor limits amplitude of the

harmonic currents. 79

PFC capacitors are usually not intended to conduct significant

harmonic currents.

Heating in capacitors is a function of capacitor equivalent

series resistance (esr) and rms current. The maximum

allowable rms current then leads to the capacitor rating:

Irms

rated rms voltage Urms =

2π fC

I2rms

rated reactive power QC =

2π fC

80

Evaluating System Harmonics

In order to prevent or correct harmonic problems that could

occur within an industrial facility, an evaluation of system

harmonics should be performed if the facility conditions

meet one or more of the criteria below.

1.The application of capacitor banks in systems where 20% or

more of the load includes other harmonic generating equipment

or where background distortion exceeds 2%.

2.The facility has a history of harmonic related problems,

including excessive capacitor fuse operation.

3.Large single non-linear loads are being added greater than

about 10% of the transformer rating.

4.Many small identical non-linear loads are being added that

operate together.

In facilities where restrictive power company requirements limit

the harmonic injection back into their system to very small

81

magnitudes.

Mitigation of Harmonics

variable frequency drive designs to the addition of auxiliary

equipment. Following are some of the more common

methods used today for controlling power system harmonics.

Addition of a

downstream

reactor or

reduction in

upstream source

impedance

reduces voltage

THD at the point

considered.

82

Carefully choosing the installation structure

linear loads

supplied by another MV/LV transformer.

83

Passive harmonic filters

Passive or ‘trap’ filters employ ‘passive’ elements (capacitors

and inductors) to ‘trap’ or absorb harmonics. Passive filters

are generally configured to remove only one or two specific

harmonics. Passive filters are generally regarded as

unsuitable for filtering 3rd harmonics. For this reason, they are

best suited for applications in which 3rd harmonics are not an

issue, power factor correction is

required, and specific harmonics such as

5th or 7th are creating the problem.

Passive filters are ideal for systems that Non

have a high percentage of 6 pulse drives linear

load

and other linear loads. However, the

filters may need to be retuned for

changes in the power system. Filters can Harmonic

be designed for several nonlinear loads trap filter 84

or for an individual load,

85

Principle of compensation of harmonic components by “shunt-

type” active harmonic conditioner

to inject at any time a

current where each

harmonic current has

the same amplitude as

that of the current in the

load and is in opposition

of phases, then

Kirchoff’s law at point A

guarantees that the

current supplied by the

source is purely

sinusoidal

86

Isolation Transformers: An isolation transformer provides

several advantages. First and foremost, it provides

impedance to the drive, which reduces current distortion. It

obviously resolves voltage mismatch between the supply

and the load. If the secondary is grounded, it isolates ground

faults and reduces common mode noise.

87

Engineering recommendation G5/4

decade and a half and has provided certain guidelines. This

include limits of harmonic currents that can be fed into the

system by customers, limits for harmonic distortion caused,

suggestion for whether a load can be connected and procedures

for measurement and assessment of new loads. The new G5/4

is more stringent than G5/3, requiring more careful assessment

of new loads and measurements to be taken at different voltage

levels. It also extends the range of harmonics covered and

includes inter harmonics and notching currents.

The original edition of G5/4 included certain limits which were to

be applied from1st January 2005. However, after discussion with

industry it was agreed to modify this requirement, and this has

resulted in G5/4-1:2005

88

The standard G5/4 published in March 2001,seeks to limit

harmonic voltage distortion levels on public networks at the

time of connection of new non-linear loads to ensure

compatibility of all connected equipment.

making an assessment to see whether the planning limits are

likely to exceed at the time of connection

Regulations, the Grid and Distribution Codes, and the

connection agreements between NOCs and customers.

89

Features of G5/4

levels for individual harmonics and THD over the voltage

range from 400V to 400 kV.

assessment (compared with other standard)

modeling has been updated.

Guide ETR 122.

90

Uses IEC standards wherever possible

aggregated low voltage equipment

phase angles likely to be

process

91

What are the G5/4 limits?

the type of installation. It is the defacto standard for power

utilities and is often required of large consumers and medium

voltage systems. This specification has also become

increasingly common in low voltage system.

4% in 6.6kV, 11kV and 20 kV systems, and 3% for the other

systems with voltage level above 20kV.

92

Compatibility levels in voltage systems are based on the

immunity of capacitors as they are susceptible to harmonic

voltage distortion and are common in use.

levels for THD harmonics level

Voltage level Compatibility Planning level

(kV) level

0.4 8% 5%

6.6 – 20 8% 4%

>20 – 36.5 8% 3%

66 - 145 5% 3%

275 - 400 3.5 % 3%

93

Total current distortion is

limited on harmonic by

harmonic basis measured in

absolute RMS amps.

Table 7 is based on a system

fault level of 10MVA at 400V.

If the fault levels varies from

this base level, the figures in

Table 7 may be varied

prorate, as will the powers

that can be connected.

94

Voltage distortion limits

95

96

97

98

99

100

101

102