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# MEDICAPS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY & MANAGEMENT

## DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

MERCHANTS CIRCLE

PR E PAR ED B Y:
SU MIT SH R I VASTAVA
SH U BH A M JAWAR A
R A JPAL SI N G H YAD AV
ME- B ( BATC H 2 0 13 )

OUTLINE
Brief introduction to Merchants Circle.
Assumptions for Merchants Circle Diagram.
Construction of Merchants Circle.
Solutions of Merchants Circle.
Need for the analysis of cutting forces.
Limitations of Merchants Circle.
Conclusion

INTRODUCTION
Merchants Circle Diagram is
constructed to ease the analysis of
cutting forces acting during
orthogonal (Two Dimensional)
cutting of work piece.
Ernst and Merchant do this
scientific analysis for the first time
in 1941 and gives the following
relation in 1944

It is convenient to determine
various force and angles.

METAL CUTTING
Metal Cutting is the process of removing unwanted material from the workpiece
in the form of chips
ORTHOGONAL CUTTING

## Cutting Edge is normal to tool feed.

Here only two force components are
considered i.e. cutting force and thrust
force. Hence known as two dimensional
cutting.
Shear force acts on smaller area.

OBLIQUE CUTTING

## Cutting Edge is inclined at an acute

angle to tool feed.
Here only three force components are
considered i.e. cutting force, radial force
and thrust force. Hence known as three
dimensional cutting.
Shear force acts on larger area.

TERMINOLOGY
: Rack angle

## Fc: Cutting Force

: Frictional angle

## Fs: Shear Force

: Shear angle

F: Frictional Force

Ft : Thrust Force

V: Feed velocity

## Side Rake Angle Back Rake Angle

Fn

Fs

Fc N

Ft

V
R
Front View
P

N
F

Normal
Normal
Frictional
Friction
Friction
Shear
Force
Angle
Force
Force
RAKE
Shear
ANGLE
Angle
Cutting
Thrust
Force
Force
Back
Force
It
Resisting
Itisactis
on
at
the
the
force
the
chip
angle
tool
acted
provided
chip
between
at
interface
the
by
tool
the
the
angle
by
the
shear
Rake
Angle:
It
is
the
angle
Force
acted
along
the
velocity
of
Resistance
This
force
to
acts
shear
normal
of
the
metal
to
in
resultant
workpiece.
workpiece
normal
to
,of
the
Acts
interface
the
cutting
normal
Frictional
face
to
toof
resist
of
the
Force
the
shear
tool
the
&
plane
with
the
direction
the
between
the
face
of
thevelocity
tool
and
tool
forming
cutting
force
the
chip.
or
the
It
acts
along
of
Normal
plane.
motion
and
is plane.
provided
of tool.
by the
and
tool. Normal
travel.
measured
inForce,
a plane
perpendicular
shear
tool.

Reaction.
to the
side cutting
edge
Cutting
force increases
as speed

Side Rake
Angle:
It is the as
angle
increases
and
decreases
rake
-1

between
angle
= decreases
tanthe face of the tool and
measured
in a plane
perpendicular
: coefficient
of friction
to the base

ASSUMPTIONS FOR
MERCHANTS CIRCLE DIAGRAM
Tool edge is sharp.
The work material undergoes deformation across a
thin shear plane.
There is uniform distribution of normal and shear
stress on shear plane.
The work material is rigid and perfectly plastic.
The shear angle adjusts itself to minimum work.
The friction angle remains constant and is
independent of .
The chip width remains constant.
The chip does not flow to side, or there is no side

FS

FN
FC
FT

R
F
N

## FORCES INCLUDED IN METAL CUTTING

Fs , Resistance to shear of the metal in forming the chip. It
acts along the shear plane.
Fn , Backing up force on the chip provided by the
workpiece. Acts normal to the shear plane.
N, It at the tool chip interface normal to the cutting face of
the tool and is provided by the tool.
F, It is the frictional resistance of the tool acting on the chip.
It acts downward against the motion of the chip as it glides
upwards along the tool face.

## SOLUTION OF MERCHANTS CIRCLE

Knowing Fc , Ft , and , all other component forces
can be calculated as:

FS
FN

On Shear plane,
FT

Now,

FC
R
N

## SOLUTION OF MERCHANTS CIRCLE

Let be the shear angle

Where,

Fs

## Now shear plane angle

Fn
Fc
The average stresses on the
shear plane area are:

Ft

R
F
N

## SOLUTION OF MERCHANTS CIRCLE

Now the shear force can be written as:
Fs

and

Fc
Ft

## Assuming that is independent of ,

for max. shear stress

Fn

R
N

## NEED OF ANALYSIS OF FORCES

Analysis of cutting forces is helpful as: Design of stiffness etc. for the machine tolerance.
Whether work piece can withstand the cutting force
can be predicted.
In study of behavior and machinability
characterization of the work piece.
Estimation of cutting power consumption, which
also enables selection of the power source(s) during
design of the machine tool.
Condition monitoring of the cutting tools and
machine tool.

Proper use of MCD enables the followings : Easy, quick and reasonably accurate determination
of several other forces from a few forces involved in
machining.
Friction at chip-tool interface and dynamic yield
shear strength can be easily determined.
Equations relating the different forces are easily
developed.

## LIMITATIONS OF MERCHANTS CIRCLE

Some limitations of use of MCD are : Merchants Circle Diagram (MCD) is valid only for
orthogonal cutting.
By the ratio, F/N, the MCD gives apparent (not
actual) coefficient of friction.
It is based on single shear plane theory.

CONCLUSIONS/RESULTS
Following conclusions/results are drawn from MCD : Shear angle is given by

been suggested:
= for >15o
= 15o for <15o

THANK YOU