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SUSTAINABLE

FARMING:
AGRICULTURA
L WASTE
MANAGEMENT

AGRICULTURAL
WASTE MANAGEMENT

BioMASS
BioGAS

Organic
Fertilizers
Compost
Animal Manure

Increase the organic


matter content in soil
nutrient availability for
crop - nutrient
management plan

Feasible

Why
Agricultural
Waste
Management?
Reduces Well water
contamination minimize
surface water pollution

Increase water retention


factor (water holding
capacity)

What is a Nutrient
Management Plan?
A

Nutrient Management Plan (NMP) is a


tool that identifies the nutrient needs (in
terms of timing and amount) of a given
crop or crops being planted in order to
maximize yields and minimize nutrient
runoff.

Maintain an
adequate
supply of
nutrients for
plant
production

Manage the
physical,
chemical and
biological
condition of
soils for future
crop production.

Why Develop
a Nutrient
Management
Plan?

Minimized
the pollution
of surface and
ground water
resources from
excess
nutrients

Ensure manure or
other organic byproducts present
are maximized as a
plant nutrient
source

Biomass
biological

material derived from living,


or recently living organisms. It most
often refers to plants or plant-based
materials which are specifically
calledlignocellulosic biomass.
biomass can either be used directly via
combustion to produce heat, or
indirectly after converting it to various
forms ofbiofuel.

BIOMASS

Biomass Energy Source on


The Farm
Biomass Residue
Energy crops
Grasses
Trees
Oil Plants

Chemical

Biochemical

Methods
of Biomass
Conversio
n to
Biofuel

Thermal

Liquid or Gases
to produce
electricity
-steam

Methane gas
For cooking

Biomass
Products

Transportation
Fuel Biodiesel
from Soy bean
and Canola oils
(vegetables oil
or animal fats)

Ethanol
(Fermentation
of Sugar cane
or Cone)
-to make beer

BIOGAS

Energy Crops and Feedstock


for Biogas
Production
Typical
Energy
Crops For
Biogas
Production

Alternative Other
Organic Material Such
as waste Products

Maize

Slurry

Grass

Manure

Wheat
Rye
Triticale

Vegetables
waste
Glycerol From
Biodiesel
Manufacture

Future of biogas
Biogas recovery systems are another potential source of
income for farmers, including those with swine operations.
Codigestion describes a process in which multiple types of
organic wastes are fed into a single digester, enabling
higher methane output.
Eg: U.S. EPAs AgSTAR program, a voluntary outreach
and educational endeavor that promotes the
recovery and use of methane from animal manure,
has compiled a list of online resources for those who
are interested in employing such systems.

Adapted from: http://farmindustrynews.com/bioenergy/energy-sector-looks-agricultural-waste

Agricultural Biogas Plants


Agricultural biogas plants typically consist of a
number of low digesters built either from concrete or
metal. They are often topped by a twin-skinned gas
storage bag, giving them a characteristic
appearance.The majority of biogas will be produced
by the first digestion tank with a lower gas yield
being attained in the secondary digestate storage
tank.
An useful approximate rule of thumb is that for 1 acre
(0.405 hectares) of whole crop maize will produce
enough gas to generate 1kW of electrical power.

Economics of Agricultural
Biogas
Agricultural

biogas plants typically


generate returns via the sale of
electricity alone,
Gate fees as a charge for the
acceptance of waste materials may be
low or none-existent.
GEs Jenbacher Gas Engines

ORGANIC FERTILIZER

Organic fertilizers
Sewage
Sludge

Agriculture
Plant Waste
-Compost

Organic
Fertilizer
s

Animal
Waste
Manure
Bloodmeal
Bones,
horns, etc

Peat

Compost
organic matter that has beendecomposedand recycledas
afertilizerandsoil amendment.
Compost is a key ingredient inorganic farming.
Compost is rich in nutrients.
Difference: Fertilizer provides nutrients to the plant in order for
them to grow. Compost is a mixture of organic waste that
provides nutrients to the soil.
Composting is an aerobic process where organic materials are
biologically decomposed, producing mainly compost, carbon
dioxide, water, and heat. Conventional composting processes
typically comprise four major microbiological stages in relation to
temperature: mesophilic, thermophilic, cooling, and maturation,
during which the structure of the microbial community also
changes, and the final product is compost

HOW COMPOST WORKS?


At the simplest level, the process of composting simply requires
making a heap of wetted organic matter known asgreen waste
(leaves, food waste) and waiting for the materials to break down into
humusafter a period of weeks or months. Modern, methodical
composting is a multi-step, closely monitored process with measured
inputs of water, air, and carbon- and nitrogen-rich materials.
The decomposition process is aided by shredding the plant matter,
adding water and ensuring proper aeration by regularly turning the
mixture. Worms and fungi further break up the material. Bacteria
requiring oxygen to function (aerobic bacteria) and fungi manage the
chemical process by converting the inputs into heat, carbon dioxide
andammonium. The nitrogen is the form of ammonium (NH4) used
by plants. When available ammonium is not used by plants it is
further converted by bacteria intonitrates(NO3) through the process
ofnitrification.

Key Factors Affecting The Composting


Process
Many microorganisms, including aerobic bacteria, need
oxygen.
Air
They need oxygen to produce energy, grow quickly, and
Factor
consume more materials.
Organic material provides food for organisms in the form of
carbon and nitrogen
Food
Factor Carbon and nitrogen levels vary with each organic material
Decomposer organism need water to live
They need oxygen to produce energy, grow quickly, and
Moisture consume more materials.
Factor Microorganisms can only utilize organic molecules that are
dissolved in water.

Related to proper air and moisture level


Temperature between 90 and 140F indicate rapid
Temperatur decomposition

e Factor

Affects the rate of organic Matter breakdown


The more surface area available, the easier it is for
microorganism to work.
Particle Size Microorganism are able to digest more, generate more heat,
Factor
and multiply faster with smaller pieces of material

Volume
Factor

Retaining compost pile heat

Table 1 provides estimates of the C:N ratio for selected composting materials.
TABLE 1. Carbon:Nitrogen Ratios
Air Factor
MATERIAL

C:N RATIO

Corn stalks

50-100:1

Fruit waste

35:1

Grass clippings

12-25:1

Hay, green

25:1

Leaves, ash, black elder and elm

21-28:1

Leaves, pine

60-100:1

Leaves, other

30-80:1

Manure, horse and cow

20-25:1

Paper

170-200:1

Sawdust

200-500:1

Seaweed

19:1

Straw

40-100:2

Vegetable waste

12-25:1

Weeds

25:1

Wood chips

500-700:1

Articles

Fertilizers from biomass enhance


growth
http://
biomassmagazine.com/articles/3529/fertilize
rs-from-biomass-enhance-growth

Is "Peecycling" the Next Wave in


Sustainable Living?
http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news
/2014/02/140202-peecycling-urine-humanwaste-compost-fertilizer
/

Reference
http://www.bioenergyconsult.com/agricult
ural-wastes
/
http://www.ucsusa.org/clean_energy/smart
-energy-solutions/increase-renewables/gr
owing-energy-on-the-farm.html#.
VRvw0_6UeSo
Biomass to Fertilizers:
http://
biomassmagazine.com/articles/3529/ferti
lizers-from-biomass-enhance-growth
http://www.biomassenergycentre.org.uk/