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Selecting Employees

Learning Objectives:

Define selection process


Explain the Validity of the Selection Process
Explain the reliability of the Selection Process
Discuss the uniform guidelines for employees
Discuss and explain the selection procedure

The Selection Process

Job Analysis
The Identification of KSAs or Job Requirements
The Identification of Selection Methods to Assess
KSAs
The Assessment of the Reliability and Validity of
Selection Methods
The Use of Selection Methods to Process Job
Applicants

The Selection Process

1. Job Analysis

The systematic study of job content in order to determine


the major duties and responsibilities of the job. Allows the
organization to determine the important dimensions of job
performance. The major duties and responsibilities of a job
are often detailed in the job description.

2. The Identification of
KSAs or Job
Requirements

Drawing upon the information obtained through job


analysis or from secondary sources such as O*NET, the
organization identifies the knowledge, skills, and abilities
necessary to perform the job. The job requirements are
often detailed in a document called the job specification.

The Selection Process, cont.

3. The Identification of
Selection Methods to
Assess KSAs

Once the organization knows the KSAs needed by job


applicants, it must be able to determine the degree to
which job applicants possess them. The organization must
develop its own selection methods include, but are not
limited to, reference and background checks, interviews,
cognitive testing, personality testing, aptitude testing, drug
testing, and assessment centers.

4. The Assessment of
the Reliability and
Validity of Selection
Methods

The organization should be sure that the selection


methods they use are reliable and valid. In terms of
validity, selection methods should actually assess the
knowledge, skill, or ability they purport to measure and
should distinguish between job applicants who will be
successful on the job and those who will not.

The Selection Process, cont.


The organization should use its selection methods to make
selection decisions. Typically, the organization will first try to
5. The Use of
determine which applicants possess the minimum KSAs
Selection Methods to
required. Once unqualified applicants are screened, other
Process Job
selection methods are used to make distinctions among the
Applicants
remaining job candidates and to decide which applicants will
receive offers.

The Basics of Testing and Selecting


Employees
Carefully testing and screening employees is
important because :

It results in improved employee and organizational


performance
Your own performance always depends on
subordinates
Can reduce dysfunctional behaviors at work
Effective screening helps reduce costs in the long
run

Legal Implications and Negligent Hiring

Incompetent hiring can


result in legal implications
such as unfairly
discriminating against a
protected group

Legal Implications and Negligent Hiring, cont.

Negligent hiring occurs when employers are liable


for employees who have criminal records or other
problems that use a customers home or similar
opportunities to commit crimes

Hiring these types of employees requires


safeguards

Reasonable action must be taken to investigate


the candidates backgrounds

Selection Procedure
Interviewing

Candidates
Selection Tests
Reference and Background Analysis
Physical Exam
Job Offer
Employment Contract

Interviewing Candidates

Interviewing is an indispensible management tool

An Interview is a procedure designed to solicit


information from a persons oral responses to oral
inquiries

Preliminary Interview

Selection Interview

A Selection Interview is designed to predict future


job performance based on candidates answers

Types of Selection Interviews

Non-structured (questions are asked as you think of


them) versus structured interviews (questions are
known and the order specified in advance)

Types of Selection Interviews, cont.

There are different types of questions for different


types of interviews

Situational interviews ask what would the


candidates behavior be in a given situation

Behavioral interviews ask how the candidate


has reacted in a similar situation in the past

Types of Selection Interviews, cont.

Interviews are also One-on-one interviews

were two people meet alone and one


interviews the other
Sequential

interviews occur when several


people interview the applicant in sequence
before a decision is made

Types of Selection Interviews, cont.

Panel interviews are when


the candidate is
interviewed
simultaneously by a group

Interviews can also occur


via video or phone

How Useful Are Interviews?

Statistical evidence regarding validity is mixed


indicating that the key to usefulness depends on type
of interview employed

When predicting job performance the situational


interview yields more accurate results

Structured interviews, regardless of content, are


more valid for predicting job performance

One-on-one interviews tend to be more valid


than panel interviews

Avoiding Common Interview Mistakes

Do not make snap judgments

Do not emphasize the negative

Make sure you know the job for which you are
interviewing the candidate

Do not let the pressure to hire color your opinions

Avoiding Common Interview Mistakes, cont.

Do not allow candidate order (contrast) error to


influence the interview

Take into consideration the influence of nonverbal


behavior and guard against bias

Remember to look beyond the candidates physical


attractiveness

Be wary of ingratiating and self-promoting behaviors

Avoiding Common Interview Mistakes, cont.

Prepare and plan for the interview

Establish rapport with the candidate

Ask appropriate questions

The Dos and Donts


of Interview Questions

Dont ask questions that can be answered yes or


no

Dont put words in the applicants mouth or telegraph


the desired answer by nodding or smiling when the
right answer is given

Dont interrogate the applicant as if the person is a


criminal

Interview Role Play


One

will act as the Applicant/Candidate


One will act as the Interviewer using
Competency based questions

The Dos and Donts


of Interview Questions, cont.

Dont be patronizing, sarcastic or inattentive

Dont monopolize the interview by rambling nor let the


applicant dominate the interview so you cant ask all your
questions

Do ask open-ended questions

Do listen to the candidate to encourage him or her to


express thoughts fully

The Dos and Don'ts


of Interview Questions, cont.

Do draw out the applicants opinions and feelings by


repeating the persons last comment as a question

Do ask for examples

Closing the Interview

Leave time to answer any questions the candidate may


have

If appropriate advocate your firm to the candidate

Try to end the interview on a positive note

Tell the applicant whether theres interest and what the


next step will be

Make rejections diplomatically

Selection Tests

Written Applications gauge an employees reading and


writing abilities and get at background information like
years of experience and education.
Written Tests can evaluate an applicants technical
knowledge.
Practical Tests gauge an applicants hands-on ability by
giving them actual tasks to work through: sorting a pen of
cattle, driving a truck, repairing equipment. Other
employees may be used to set up or grade the tests.
Employers should be very careful when using practical
tests, however. If, at any point, the applicant appears to be
at risk of injuring anyone or anything, the test should be
stopped immediately.

Using Tests at Work

Employers have long used tests to predict behavior


and performance

Example: Are you prone to on-the-job accidents?

Using Tests as Supplements

Do not use tests as your only selection method use tests to supplement other methods like
interviews and background checks

Remember that tests are not infallible

Most tests are more predicative at identifying


candidates that will likely fail rather than succeed

Computerized and Online Testing

Replacing conventional paper-and-pencil and


manual tests
Computerized tests usually score individuals the
same as manual tests

How Are Tests Used at Work?

Online and off-line computerized tests or aptitude


tests could be used to measure a wide range of
candidate attributes including:
Cognitive
Motor

abilities

and physical abilities

Personality

and interests

Achievement

Tests of Cognitive Abilities

Employers often assess a candidates cognitive or


mental abilities, for example: Is the bookkeeping
candidate good with numbers?

Intelligence or IQ tests look at general intellectual


abilities including memory, vocabulary, verbal fluency
and numeric ability

Aptitude tests measure specific mental abilities

Tests of Motor and Physical Abilities

Motor or physical abilities might need to be


measured for specific jobs

Finger dexterity

Strength

Manual dexterity

Reaction time

Speed of finger, hand or arm movements

Measuring Personality

Personality tests and interest inventories measure


and predict intangibles such as attitude, motivation and
temperament
A sample personality item:

It does not make sense to work hard on something if no one


will notice:
A.
B.
C.

Definitely true
Somewhat true
Neither true nor false

D. Somewhat false
E. Definitely false

Personality Test Effectiveness

Difficulties notwithstanding studies confirm that


personality tests can help companies hire more
effective workers

Measure relationships between the five personality


dimensions below with job performance criteria:

Extroversion

Emotional stability

Personality Test Effectiveness, cont.

Agreeableness

Conscientiousness

Openness to
experience

Sample Personality Test Result

Interest Inventories and Achievement Tests

Interest inventories compare ones interests with


those of people in various occupations

Achievement tests basically measure what a


person has learned

Individual Rights of Test Takers


and Test Security

Test takers have various privacy and information


rights

The American Psychological Associations standards


for educational and psychological tests include

The right to confidentiality of results

The right to informed consent regarding use of


results

Individual Rights of Test Takers


and Test Security, cont.

The right to expect only


qualified individuals will
have access to the results

The right to expect the test


is secure

VALIDITY OF SELECTION METHODS


In the selection context,
VALIDITY refers to the appropriateness,
meaningfulness, and usefulness of the
inferences made about applicants during the
selection process.

VALIDITY OF SELECTION METHODS,cont.

Validity often refers to evidence the test is jobrelated and test performance is a valid
predictor of job performance

VALIDITY OF SELECTION METHODS


It is concerned with the issue of whether
applicants will actually perform the job as well
as expected based on the inferences made
during the selection process.

VALIDITY OF SELECTION METHODS


The closer the applicants' actual job
performances
match
their
expected
performances, the greater the validity of the
selection process.
ACTUAL vs EXPECTED equals > validity

ACHIEVING VALIDITY
The organization must have a clear notion of
the job requirements and use selection
methods that reliably and accurately measure
these qualifications.

ACHIEVING VALIDITY
Some qualificationssuch as technical KSAs
and nontechnical skillsare job-specific,
meaning that each job has a unique set

ACHIEVING VALIDITY
The other qualifications are universal in that
nearly all employers consider these qualities
important, regardless of the job. For instance,
employers want all their employees to be
motivated and have good work habits.

ACHIEVING VALIDITY
By basing qualifications on job analysis
information, a company ensures that the
qualities being assessed are important for the
job. Job analyses are also needed for legal
reasons. In discrimination suits, courts often
judge the job-relatedness of a selection
practice on whether or not the selection criteria
was based on job analysis information.

STRATEGIES TO DETERMINE THE VALIDITY


OF A SELECTION METHOD
CONTENT-ORIENTED STRATEGY:
Demonstrates that the company followed
proper procedures in the development and use
of its selection devices.
most appropriate for selection devices that
directly assess job behavior

What company does in ContentOriented Strategy?


a

firm gathers evidence that it followed


appropriate procedures in developing its
selection program
the employer must demonstrate that the
selection devices were chosen on the basis of
an acceptable job analysis and that they
measured a representative sample of the KSAs
identified

STRATEGIES TO DETERMINE THE VALIDITY


OF A SELECTION METHOD
CRITERION-RELATED STRATEGY:
Provides statistical evidence showing a
relationship between applicant selection scores
and subsequent job performance levels

CRITERION-RELATED STRATEGY:
attempts to demonstrate statistically that
someone who does well on a selection
instrument is more likely to be a good job
performer than someone who does poorly on
the selection instrument.
most
appropriate when the connection
between the selection device and job behavior
is less direct

What company does in CriterionRelated Strategy?


the

HR professional needs to collect two


pieces of information on each person: a
predictor score and a criterion score

Predictor Score vs Criterion Score


Predictor

scores represent how well the


individual fared during the selection process as
indicated by a test score, an interview rating, or
an overall selection score.
Criterion

scores
represent
the
job
performance level achieved by the individual
and are usually based on supervisor
evaluations.

For example (Validity coefficient , r)


To be considered valid, R MUST BE
STATISTICALLY
SIGNIFICANT
and
its
magnitude must be sufficiently large to be of
practical
CORRELATION RULE OF THUMB: R > 0.3
CONCLUSION: applicants who score well
during selection turn out to be good performers,
while those who do not score as well become
poor performers.

STRATEGIES TO DETERMINE THE VALIDITY


OF A SELECTION METHOD
VALIDITY GENERALIZATION STRATEGY:
Demonstrates that other companies have
already established the validity of the selection
practice.

VALIDITY GENERALIZATION
STRATEGY:
established by demonstrating that a selection
device has been consistently found to be valid
in many other similar settings

TO USE VALIDITY GENERALIZATION


EVIDENCE, AN ORGANIZATION MUST
PRESENT THE FOLLOWING DATA
1.
2.

3.

Studies summarizing a selection measure's validity


for similar jobs in other settings.
Data showing the similarity between the jobs for
which the validity evidence is reported and the job in
the new employment setting.
Data showing the similarity between the selection
measures in the other studies composing the
validity evidence and those measures to be used in
the new employment setting.

Reliability of the Selection Method

Reliability here means that the selection methods,


tests and ensuing results are consistent and do not
vary with time, place or different subjects

Example : Reliability of a Ruler

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

I AM A RULER

a ruler is reliable as an instrument


for measuring dimensions

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

As a ruler, am I reliable
in measuring


dimensions?

By this criterion, human selectors of employees


are inherently not reliable because standards
may vary between selectors and within one
selector over a period of time. The issue is the
degree of unreliability.

SOLUTION
This may be reduced by using a variety of
measuring devices (tests, interviews), and
by training assessors, and using more
than one assessor.

Testing for Reliability- TEST AS A


DEVICE

Reliability is the consistency of scores obtained by


the same person when retested with the identical
test or an equivalent form of the test

Retest estimate compares two test scores taken


by the same individual at different times

Equivalent-form estimate compares the original


test with a different but equivalent test taken by
the same individual at a different time

Internal comparison
estimates look at question
groupings to statistically
analyze the degree to
which responses to this
group vary together

Management Assessment Centers

In a Management Assessment Center


management candidates take tests and make
decisions in simulated situations while observers
score their performance

Average time at center is usually 2 or 3 days and


involves 10 to 12 candidates

Management Assessment Centers, cont.


Examples of simulated realistic exercises include:

The in-basket creates a situation where the


candidate is faced with an accumulation of
reports, memos, phone messages, letters, etc., of
the simulated job he or she is to take over while
being evaluated on what action he or she takes
for each of these materials

Management Assessment Centers, cont.

The leaderless group discussion occurs when a


leaderless group is given a discussion question and
told to arrive at a group decision while observers
evaluate leadership ability, acceptance by group, etc.

Individual presentations used to evaluate a


participants communication skills and his or her
persuasiveness by orally presenting on an assigned
topic

Reference and Background Analysis

Conduct background investigations

Check social networking sites

Talk to current and previous supervisors to


discover more about persons motivation,
competence and ability to work with others

Perform credit check or use employment


screening services

Reference and Background Analysis, cont.

Perform reference checks

Make sure the candidate has signed a release

Always get two forms of identification and make


applicants fill out job applications

Use a structured reference checking form

Use given references as a source for others

Ask the right questions and judge whether the


references answers are evasive

Reference and Background Analysis, cont.

Ask open-ended questions and listen carefully


Make sure checking references is done by authorized
managers
Can be ineffective due to legal repercussions or a
current supervisor might give a bad employee a
good reference to get rid
of
the employee

Honesty Testing

The Polygraph or lie-detector is a device that


measures physiological changes such as increased
perspiration
Results are interpreted assuming that such
changes reflect emotional stress
Employee Polygraph Protection Act prohibits most
employers from conducting polygraph exams on
applicants and most employees

Honesty Testing, cont.

Paper-and-pencil honest tests


Measure attitudes regarding tolerance of others
who steal
Acceptance of
rationalizations for
theft
Admission of theftrelated activities

Spotting Dishonesty

Ask blunt questions

Listen, rather than talk

Ask for a credit check

Check all references

Consider using a paper-and-pencil test

Test for drugs

Spotting Dishonesty, cont.

Conduct searches

Communicate with
employees

Use caution

More Steps to Selecting Candidates

Graphology is also known as handwriting analysis


and has questionable validity
Physical exams can confirm the applicant qualifies
for the physical requirements of the position or
possibly detect communicable diseases unknown to
the applicant
Must comply with ADA regulations
Only permitted if such exams are standard
practice

More Steps to Selecting Candidates, cont.

Drug screening

Commonly done before candidates are formally hired

Many firms test current employees after a work


accident or when there are obvious behavioral
symptoms

Some companies administer drug tests randomly on a


periodic basis

Some firms only administer drug tests when


transferring or promoting employees

More Steps to Selecting Candidates, cont.

Problems with drug testing

Doesnt correlate with actual impairment levels and


there are many products that exist to help employees
beat drug tests

Some argue drug testing violates employees right to


privacy and due process while others feel the
procedures are degrading and intrusive

Some say positive results are irrelevant to performing


the job

More Steps to Selecting Candidates, cont.

Legal issues with drug screening

Under our Labor Code, applicant who is a former


drug user can be viewed as a qualified applicant
with disability

Some regulations require testing of workers with


sensitive or safety-related jobs

Evaluating the Selection Process

Job Offer

Presentation of company offer:

Basic Salary
Regular Bonuses and Benefits
Signing Bonus
Performance Bonus

Company KPI or KRA


Employee Training Program
Probationary Period
Rewards and Recognition
Career Growth Opportunities

Employment Contract

THANK YOU!!!