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Data Communications

and Networking

What is a Network?
Defined

as two or more
computing devices connected
together in such a way that they
can share resources
Resources:

files
folders
printers
disk drives
etc.
BCA 10

What is a Network?
A

collection of computers or
other hardware devices that are
connected together, either
physically or logically, using
special hardware and software, to
allow them to exchange
information and cooperate

BCA 10

What is Networking?
Term

that describes the process


involved in designing,
implementing, upgrading,
managing, and otherwise working
with networks and network
technologies

BCA 10

Advantages of Networking
Connectivity

and Communication

Data

Sharing
Hardware Sharing
Internet Access
Internet Access Sharing
Data Security and Management
Performance Enhancement and
Balancing
Entertainment
BCA 10

Disadvantages of
Networking
Cost

of setup
Management and administration
costs
Undesirable sharing
Illegal or undesirable behavior
Data security concerns

BCA 10

Network Interface Card


(NIC)
Circuit

board that fits in one of


the computers internal
expansion slots
Contains circuitry that handles
sending, receiving, and error
checking of transmitted data

BCA 10

Basic Components of a
Network
Server

core component of the network


provides link to the resources necessary to
perform any task
Client

requests and receives information over the


network client
depends primarily on central server for
processing activities
Circuit

cables, ports and other devices that connect


the server and the client computers
BCA 10

Key Points in Networking


Important

characteristics that influence


transmission technologies and
communication protocols
size
shape

Networks

are classified according to


area over which they extend
Size and extension depend on number
of nodes that need to communicate,
and where these nodes are in relation to
each other
BCA 10

Network Classifications
PAN

(personal area network)

refer to the interconnection of


personal digital devices or consumer
electronics w/n the range of 30ft
(10m) and without the use of wires
or cables

BCA 10

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Network Classifications
LAN

(local area network)

data communications network the


connects personal computers within
a very limited geographical area
school computer labs
home networks

BCA 10

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Network Classifications
MAN

(metropolitan area network)

public high-speed network capable


of voice and data transmission within
the range of 50mi (80km)
ISPs
small cable TV companies
local telephone companies

BCA 10

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Network Classifications
WAN

(wide area network)

covers large geographical area and


usually consists of smaller networks
nationwide banks
large cable TV companies
multi-location superstores
internet

BCA 10

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Network Topologies
Architectural

drawings to show
the overall physical configuration
for a given communications
system
Indicates the access methods
and governs the rules that are
used to design and implement
the communication system

BCA 10

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Network Topologies
Bus

topology

Single electrical circuit to which all


devices in network are connected

BCA 10

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Network Topologies
Star

topology

individual computers are connected


to a central device such as a hub or
a switch

BCA 10

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Network Topologies
Ring

topology

a collection of
separate point-topoint links
arranged to make
a ring
each nodes NIC
has one input and
one output
connection
so each node has
two links

BCA 10

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Communications Model
Source
Destination
System

Transmitter

Transmissio
n System

Receiver

Source
System

Destination

BCA 10

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Communications Model
Personal
Computer

Modem

Modem
Broadband
Connection

BCA 10

Server

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