You are on page 1of 23

Fuzzy C-Means Clustering Based

Principal Component averaging Fusion


R. Vijayarajan and S. Muttan Fuzzy C-Means Clustering Based Principal
Component averaging Fusion, International Journal of Fuzzy Systems,
Vol.16, No.2, June 2014.

Adviser: C. C. Chang
Presenter: Avichandra
ID: 103999005

OUTLINE
INTRODUCTION
PROPOSED ALGORITHM
EXPERIMENTS AND RESULTS
CONCLUSION

INTRODUCTION
Fusion means the process or result of joining two
or more things together to form a single entity.
Medical image fusion is means to address various
issues related to images of human body, organ
and cells etc.
Image fusion methods leads to faithful integration
of visual information observed from various input
images into single image without any degradation
and loss of information .

Cont.
There are some fusion algorithms :
a) Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT)
b) Dual Tree Complex Wavelet Transform (DTCWT)
c) Principal Component Analysis (PCA)
d) Stationary Wavelet Fusion (SWT)
e) Fuzzy C-Means Clustering based Principal Component
Averaging (FCMPCAV)

Cont.
DWT provides directional information and localization
over the pyramid transform methods, but often suffer
from poor directionality, absence of phase information
and shift sensitivity.

DTCWT is computationally costly and requires larger


memory.

PCA is a well known de-correlation method and preserves


only the most significant principal components.
SWT

Cont.
In this paper Fuzzy C-Means clustering based principal
component averaging (FCMPCAV) fusion is proposed for fusion
of MRI image.
Fusion of slices of same modality leads to more image details
and subsequent effective image analysis.
This algorithm aims at fusion of images details from same
modality by segmenting source images into number of
clusters using a robust fuzzy C-Means clustering (FCM)
algorithms.
FCM algorithms provides fuzzy membership values for each
data point for the belongingness to various clusters.

Cont.

Cont.

Cont.
The main aim of FCM clustering is to reduce intra-cluster
variance.
This lead to fusion of similar regions of images, numbers
of clusters is decided based on average quality index
(AQI).
The performance of the fusion algorithm is analyzed by
AIQ, Mean Structural Similarity (MSSIM) and Average
Mutual Information (AMI).
The comparative analysis is carried out with PCA fusion,
DWT and DTCWT and SWT.

PROPOSED ALGORITHM
FCM clustering algorithm is an unsupervised and robust
clustering algorithm which allows one input vector in two
or more cluster region.
Its data partition is base on the assigning membership
value.
Membership values are calculated by
where m is any real value but greater than one and set to uij
xi
two. th denotes the degree of membership
of in the j xi
Cj
clusteri region .
is the
of d-dimensional
input
data.
is thej Centre of the cluster region .

Cont.
Fuzzy portioning is carried out by iteratively
Cj
uij
optimizing the objective function and updating
membershipc of
and2
cluster centers

uij [ (
k 1

|| xi c j ||

|| xi ck ||

m 1

) ]1

m
u
i 1 ij .xi
N

Cj

m
u
i 1 ij
Termination of the iteration is given by
max ij {| uijk 1 uijk |}
N

Where k is the no. of iteration step and is a criteria for termination


between 0 an 1.

PRINCIPAL COMPONENT ANALYSIS


FUSION
Lots of algorithms have been proposed for fusion based
on PCA because of its computational and realization,
and its widely used application in pattern recognition,
compression, fusion and noise reduction.
The largest principal components representing the
largest eigenvalues of covariance matrix are the weight
for the input images in the fusion rules.
PCA is evaluates eigenvectors and eigenvalues. Its
derived from the covariance matrix and diagonalization
by finding eigenvectors and eigenvalues.

Cont.
zj
Let xi and
are the two images to be fused and
expressed as a column vectors

x1
xi x2
x N

z1
z j z 2
z N

N is the number of pixels

The covariance matrix of the two source images


is givenCov
by:
( x , z ) E[( xi x )( z j z )]
i

1 Mean of all 1pixels


xi ( ) xi
z j ( ) z j
N
N

is

FCM BASED PRINCIPAL COMPONENT


AVERAGING FUSION
By FCM clustering algorithm the source images is
segmented in to k numbers of cluster, and
segmented regions are sorted in particular order
to have relevant region for fusion.

Cont.
The principal component for all k pairs of clusters of
i
i
m2
source images are m
given
as
and
, where i = 1,k.
1
Average of all the principal components are evaluated by
m1

1
K

i 1 m1i
K

m2

1
K

i
m
2
i 1

K=2 or 3 or 4 or
K is subjective for different input images,
and
i
i
m2
m1
constitute weights for fusion rules and the fused images is
given by

y m1 * xi m2 * z j

EXPERIMENTS AND
RESULTS
Three metrics AQI, MSSIM and AMI are evaluated to
analysis the performance of proposed algorithm.
Higher AMI demonstrates more information transfer
from input images to fused image. MSSIM and AQI
value of close to one denotes better similarity
between source images and the fused image.
Fusion can be implemented for two type of medical
images.
Fusion of medical images from different modalities
another is from same
modalities and in this paper used the fusion from the
same modalities.

AVERAGE MUTUAL
INFORMATION
Mutual information quantifies the amount of information
transferred from one source images to the fused image.
Mutual information between the one of the source
y
xi

images ( ) and fused image ( ) is given by


I ( xi , y ) x , y p xi y ( xi , y ) log
i

p xi y ( xi , y )

p xi ( xi ) p y ( y )

Mutual information
between
y the one of the source
zj
images ( ) and fused image ( ) is given by
I ( z j , y ) z

j ,y

p z j y ( x j , y ) log

AMI

I ( xi , y ) I ( z j , y )
2

pz j y ( z j , y)

pz j ( z j ) p y ( y)

MEAN STRUCTURAL
SIMILARITY INDEX
Structural similarity index is a better image
quality assessment metric for fusion methods.
Mean SSIM index is calculated between one of the
input images and the fused image which shows
better image quality assessment.
If one of the images being compared is of perfect
quality, then MSSIM can be considered as the
quality metric of the other image.

Cont.
The MSSIM values demonstrate much better
consistency with the visual presentation quality.

MSSIM ( xi , y )

1 L
S 1 SSIM ( xs , y s )
L

xi and
y
are the one of the input images
s th
and fused imageL respectively.
and
are
ys
image contentsxs at the local window.
is
the number of
local windows in the
image.

EXPERIMENTS
The proposed algorithm is experimented on all
the five sets of medical images. AIQ is obtained
by adjusting the number of clusters in the
segmented images.
Among thirty image pairs taken for experiments,
five sets of perfectly registered MR images of size
256 X 256 are given in fig.1 For segmentation, MR
3&4 images are clustered into 5 regions

Cont.
The main aim of the FCM clustering is to reduce
intra cluster variance based on the fuzzy
membership values, thus lead to fusion of similar
regions of source images.
FCM methods provides fusion of regions with
reduced intra cluster variance and PCA evaluates
principal components for the whole data set.

CONCLUSION
This algorithm is adaptively applied to get fusion
result with maximum average quality index.
Analyzing metrics such as average quality index
average mutual information and mean structural
similarity index clearly demonstrate that the
proposed algorithm proves superior to other
algorithms for the fusion of various slices of MR
images.
proposed algorithm provides superior fusion of
image details of slices of MR images.

Thank you!